Silver Queen Elizabeth II Mother Happy Birthday Coin Vintage 1900 1980 The Crown • $10.44 (2024)

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Seller: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (3,583) 99.6%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 266806392630 Silver Queen Elizabeth II Mother Happy Birthday Coin Vintage 1900 1980 The Crown. Queen Mother 80th Birthday Crown This is a Cupro Nickel Coin minted by the Royal Mail in 1980 to Celebrate the 80th Birthday of the Queen Mother The front has an image of the her daughter Queen Elizabeth II The back an image of the great lady UK 1980 Queen Mother's 80th Birthday 25p Crown Before £5 coins, major Royal events and national celebrations were marked by the Royal Mint with Crown Coins — struck to the exact same specification as today's £5 coins. A crown tariffed at 25 pence was issued in August 1980 to celebrate the 80th birthday of the Queen Mother. Her left facing portrait on the reverse of the coin was the first time a person other than the reigning monarch had been portrayed on a British coin in their own lifetime. The design features her effigy surrounded by a radiating pattern of bows and lions; a pun on her family name of Bowes-Lyon. This historic UK coin was is one of just four decimal crown coins ever to be struck. Specifications Country of Issue: United Kingdom Year of Issue: 1980 Diameter: 38.61mm Weight: 28.28g Metal: Cupro-nickel Obverse: QEII by Arnold Machin Reverse: Portrait of the Queen Mother Manufacturer: Royal Mint Monarch: Elizabeth II (1953 - 2022) Collections: Queen Mother Series / Ranges: 80th Birthday Denomination: 25p Crown In 1980 to celebrate Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother's 80th Birthday, the Royal Mint released a special Limited Issue Queen Mother 80th Birthday 25p Twenty Five Pence Commemorative Crown Coin. The reverse designed by Richard Guyatt depicts the Queen Mothers head in the center with a fan-fair design with Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother August 4th 1980. The obverse is the portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin. Limited Mintage Worldwide Finished to Royal Mint's Uncirculated Quality Celebrating the Queen Mothers 80th Birthday A wonderful collection for anyone who loved the Queen Mother Would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. This once belonged to my Grand Mother and she kept it in a display cabinet for many years, but when she died it was placed in a box for storage. We Decided to have a clear out so We are using the proceeds from this auction to buy a bench with a memorial plaque for my gran so we can sit with her on a nice summers day I hope it will find a good home Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the owl justice it looks a lot better in real life Like all my auctions bidding starts at 1p with no reserve Click Here to Check out my other Royal Items Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 900 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! 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Bernardino, Cincinnati and AccraElizabeth In 1980, the Royal Mint released a commemorative issue of the 25p coin to honour the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. Struck in both standard cupro-nickel and silver proof quality, the coin is bound to be a part of any fan of the Royal Family’s collection. But how much is the coin worth today, and are they legal tender? We’ve got everything you need to know about the 1980 Queen Mother crown. Why was the 1980 Queen Mother crown minted? The 1980 Queen Mother crown is one of four commemorative 25p coins issued between 1972 and 1981. It was minted to honour to 80th birthday of the H.M Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, a member of the Royal Family who was well-liked by the British Public. Born as the Honourable Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon on 4th of August 1900, the Queen Mother joined the Royal Family in 1923 after her marriage to HRH The Duke of York in 1923. They went on to have two children, Princess Elizabeth in 1926 and Princess Margaret in 1930. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother She is notably known for her bravery in the face of war, after refusing to evacuate away from Britain and leave her husband who was King at the time. Her appealing charm and clear devotion to her Royal duties led to the Queen Mother becoming a respected figure amongst the British public, and it is clear to see why she was chosen to be commemorated on a 25p coin at the time. When considering why the 25p coin was chosen over any other coin denomination, it helps to look at the previous designs that were minted. Every issue of the 25p coin commemorates someone, or some event, that specifically involves the Royal Family whereas other coins such as the 50p are used to honour anyone with significant British history. The other 3 designs of the 25p coin celebrate: the Silver wedding anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, 1972 Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee, 1977 the wedding of Charles and Diana, 1981 It is therefore unsurprising that such a significant date within the Royal Family was honoured on the 25p coin specifically. What is the design of the 1980 Queen Mother crown? The design of the 1980 Queen Mother crown, created by Professor Richard Guyatt, is very unique in comparison to the standard crowns that were minted previously. Reverse of the 1980 Queen Mother crown Image Source The reverse design features a beaded circle design with the portrait of the Queen Mother facing to the left, marking the first time a person other than the reigning monarch had been portrayed on a British coin during their own lifetime. Surrounding her portrait is a radiating pattern of bows and rampant lions which is a pun on her maiden name, Bowes-Lyon. The inscription around the outer edge of the reverse design reads ‘QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER’ and the bottom reads the date of her birthday, ‘AUGUST 4th 1980’. Obverse of 1980 Queen Mother crown Image Source The obverse of the coin features what is known as the ‘Second Portrait’ of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin. She wears the ‘Girls of Great Britain and Ireland’ diamond tiara and faces to the right as in all her coins. In keeping with crowns issued previously by the Royal Mint, the coin does not have its value stated anywhere on its design. The edge of the coin is milled and features no inscription. Did the Coin Enter Circulation? Each of the four different crowns issued after Decimal Day in 1971 are currently referred to as 25p coins, reflecting their new value in respect to the new pound. Despite their high mintage figures, the 25p coins were minted with the intention of being for commemorative purposes only and not to go into circulation. Despite being a commemorative issue only, the 1980 Queen Mother crown remains legal tender in the United Kingdom. This means that if you were to take one to the Post Office, they would be required to accept it at its value of 25 pence. It does not mean that it can be used for the purchase of goods and services, however, as the currency that a store accepts is at the owner’s discretion and tends to be limited to the coins and banknotes that are classified as legal currency in the UK. You can read more about the definition of ‘legal tender’ and how it applies to everyday situations here. 1980 Queen Mother Coin Value The value of a coin is generally determined by its mintage figure and the date of its release. What makes the 1980 Queen Mother crown a little different is the fact that it was intended to be for commemorative purposes only and not to be released into circulation. Despite not being released into circulation, the coin was still minted in high quantities. With an official mintage figure of 9,306,000 (over 9.3 million), there are more of the 1980 Queen Mother crown than many of the commemorative 50p coins that are minted today, such as the Benjamin Britten 50p for example. This is believed to have been because the Queen Mother was generally liked by much of the British public and so the demand for a coin in her honour was high. The coin was also minted in limited silver proof quality, with only 83,672 available, for avid fans of the Royal Family and coin collectors alike. So how much is the 1980 Queen Mother crown worth today? A look through the most recent sales on eBay in 2022 shows that the standard cupro-nickel version of the coin only sells for around £1.55, not unsurprising when considering the high quantity of them produced. If you’ve managed to get your hands on one of the silver proof quality versions of the coin, you could be looking to sell it for up to £30 assuming it’s kept in its original box. We would expect this value to increase over time so it could be worth holding on to for now. Final Thoughts The 1980 Queen Mother crown may not be worth a great amount, but it remains a key part of any Royal Family fan’s collection and is worth getting your hands on if you haven’t already. Queen Elizabeth: Who was the Queen mother? We examine the life of Queen Elizabeth II’s mother, who lived to be 101 years old Rachel Burchfield Thursday 15 September 2022 12:15 Comments Close Official statement confirming Queen's death displayed outside Buckingham Palace IndyEat Stay ahead of the trend in fashion and beyond with our free weekly Lifestyle Edit newsletter Email I would like to be emailed about offers, events and updates from The Independent. Read our privacy notice On the 30 March, 2022, it marked 20 years since one of the most important figures in Her Majesty’s life – her mother – passed away at the age of 101. Throughout most of her century-plus life, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother – or just simply the Queen Mother – was regarded affectionately as the matriarch of the British Royal Family. Her death came less than two months after Her Majesty’s younger sister, Princess Margaret, died on 9 February, 2002, at 71. These back-to-back losses preceded that year’s Golden Jubilee, making 2002 both a terrible year and a happy one for the Queen. What was the Queen Mother’s childhood like? According to the royal family’s website, the Queen Mother was born the Honourable Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon on 4 August, 1900, and spent her early childhood years at St. Paul’s Waldenbury in Hertfordshire, the country home of her parents. When her father inherited his Earldom in 1904, she became Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. The Bowes-Lyon family is descended from the Royal House of Scotland. Recommended King Charles ‘tells Prince Andrew there is no place’ for him at Buckingham Palace King Charles ‘tells Prince Andrew there is no place’ for him at Buckingham Palace Prince Harry shares where he and Meghan revealed their first pregnancy Prince Harry shares where he and Meghan revealed their first pregnancy Prince Andrew accuser Virginia Giuffre ‘signs book deal for memoir’ Prince Andrew accuser Virginia Giuffre ‘signs book deal for memoir’ Tragedy struck her life early – during World War I, one of her brothers, Fergus, was killed at the Battle of Loos in 1915. To do her part in the war effort, Lady Elizabeth assisted with welfare work with patients at Glamis Castle – which belonged to her family – as it had been turned into a hospital during the war. Growing up, Lady Elizabeth and her older sisters had been friendly with the children of King George V and Queen Mary, and, on occasion, members of the royal family stayed at Glamis Castle. Relations were so friendly between the families that, in 1922, Lady Elizabeth served as a bridesmaid at the wedding of Princess Mary, who would become her sister-in-law. The next year, in January 1923, Lady Elizabeth’s engagement to HRH The Duke of York, King George V and Queen Mary’s second son, was announced. The Duke of York had proposed on multiple occasions prior to Lady Elizabeth accepting this proposal; she was the only woman his heart longed for. The Queen Mother’s marriage to King George VI The Duke of York married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon on 26 April, 1923, in Westminster Abbey. In a touching moment that is now repeated by all royal brides, she laid her wedding bouquet at the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in memory of her brother, Fergus, killed in combat eight years prior. (L-R) Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret in June 1936 (L-R) Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret in June 1936 (Getty) Nearly three years to the day later, their first child, Princess Elizabeth, was born on 21 April, 1926; Princess Margaret followed on 21 August, 1930. The foursome was incredibly close, a tight-knit unit whose world was rocked in 1936. King George V died that January, and, by the end of the year, The Duke of York’s older brother King Edward VIII abdicated the throne on 11 December, making his brother Albert, Duke of York, King George VI. The duch*ess of York became Queen Elizabeth, the first British-born Queen consort since Tudor times. The Queen Mother as Queen From 1936 to 1952, the Queen visited many Commonwealth nations and overseas countries, making two important visits between her husband’s coronation and the outbreak of World War II in 1939 – a visit to France in July 1938 and to Canada and the United States in June 1939. The outbreak of war, naturally, changed the monarchy’s priorities. When it was suggested to the Queen that she and her young daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, should evacuate to North America or Canada, the Queen famously said: “The children won’t go without me. I won’t leave the King. And the King will never leave.” So, throughout World War II, the foursome stuck together; the Queen was in Buckingham Palace when it was bombed in September 1940. Following the bombings, the Queen said: “I am glad we have been bombed. It makes me feel I can look the East End in the face.” The Queen Mother and Queen Elizabeth II in London, November 1964 The Queen Mother and Queen Elizabeth II in London, November 1964 ( Terry Disney/Getty) In 1948, upon their silver wedding anniversary, King George VI spoke movingly in a broadcast to the nation of the inspiration he had received from his marriage. As his health declined, the last public appearance that he and the Queen attended together was in May 1951. King George VI died peacefully on 6 February, 1952, leaving the Queen a widow at just 51 years old. “She suffered terribly when she lost her husband,” royal correspondent Victoria Arbiter told The Independent. “She said ‘You never get over grief, you just get better at it.’” On becoming the Queen Mother After her husband’s death and the accession of her daughter, also named Elizabeth, to the throne, she began to be known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, so as not to confuse. The Queen Mother continued public duties after her husband’s death, both in the UK and overseas, including over 40 official visits abroad. Her Majesty was patron of around 350 organisations and, for many years, was President of the British Red Cross Society. After King George VI died, the Queen Mother moved out of Buckingham Palace and into Clarence House in St. James’s Palace. In 1953 she purchased the Castle of Mey in northeast Scotland and spent time there every August and October. “She removed herself from royal life for quite some time and went to Scotland to grieve and figure out what her role was moving forward,” Arbiter said. “There was not a defined role for a mother of the sovereign, and she carved out a fantastic position for herself as the nation’s favorite twinkly-eyed granny. She set the tone for the rest of the royal family.” The Queen Mother was appointed a Lady of the Garter on 14 December, 1936, and, upon her husband’s coronation, was named the first Lady of the Thistle. The Queen Mother was the recipient of a number of orders, declarations, and medals, both in the UK and overseas. (L-R) Princess Margaret, Queen Elizabeth II and the Queen Mother in June 1958 (L-R) Princess Margaret, Queen Elizabeth II and the Queen Mother in June 1958 (Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty) “The Queen Mother was a remarkable woman,” Arbiter added. “It speaks to her strength of character that she conducted her last public engagement at 101 in November 2001. As Christmas approached, she attended the staff party for the most loyal staffers and got up out of her wheelchair to speak to them. She’s from the wartime era, where you didn’t complain, and you helped your neighbor and sacrificed yourself for the benefit of others. She was a real stickler for the tradition of the monarchy.” Recommended King Charles ‘tells Prince Andrew there is no place’ for him at Buckingham Palace King Charles ‘tells Prince Andrew there is no place’ for him at Buckingham Palace Prince Harry shares where he and Meghan revealed their first pregnancy Prince Harry shares where he and Meghan revealed their first pregnancy Prince Andrew accuser Virginia Giuffre ‘signs book deal for memoir’ Prince Andrew accuser Virginia Giuffre ‘signs book deal for memoir’ She loved the countryside, sport, and horseracing, and was an expert fisherwoman. But perhaps one of her most important roles was as mother to Queen Elizabeth II, with whom she shared a deep connection. “The Queen Mother shared a very close bond with both of her daughters,” Arbiter said. “She ruled with an iron fist, but in a loving fashion.” Charles III Head of the Commonwealth Photograph of Charles III Charles as Prince of Wales in 2017 King of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms Reign 8 September 2022 – present Predecessor Elizabeth II Heir apparent William, Prince of Wales Born Prince Charles of Edinburgh 14 November 1948 (age 74) Buckingham Palace, London, England Spouses Diana Spencer (m. 1981; div. 1996) Camilla Parker Bowles (m. 2005) Issue Detail William, Prince of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Names Charles Philip Arthur George[a] House Windsor[1] Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Mother Elizabeth II Religion Protestant[b] Signature Charles's signature in black ink Education Gordonstoun School Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge (MA) Military career Allegiance United Kingdom[c] Service/branch Royal Navy Royal Air Force Active service 1971–1976 Rank See list Commands held HMS Bronington Royal family of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms.[d] He was the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales and, at age 73, became the oldest person to accede to the British throne, upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, on 8 September 2022. Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI, and was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash the following year. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles. As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties and engagements on behalf of the Queen. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society.[2] A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups;[3] he is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food, while his support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been criticised. Early life, family and education Christening of Charles (centre, wearing the royal christening gown) in 1948: (from left to right) his grandfather King George VI; his mother, Princess Elizabeth, holding him; his father, Philip; and his grandmother Queen Elizabeth Charles was born at 21:14 (GMT) on 14 November 1948,[4] during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. He was the first child of Princess Elizabeth, duch*ess of Edinburgh (later Queen Elizabeth II), and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[5] His parents had three more children, Anne (born 1950), Andrew (born 1960) and Edward (born 1964). On 15 December 1948, at four weeks old, he was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[e][7] In February 1952, upon the death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II, Charles became the heir apparent. Under a charter of King Edward III in 1337, and as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically assumed the traditional titles of the Duke of Cornwall and, in the Scottish peerage, the titles Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[8] On 2 June 1953, Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey.[9] When Charles turned five, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to oversee his education at Buckingham Palace.[10] On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes at Hill House School in west London.[11] He was the first heir apparent to attend school rather than be educated by a private tutor.[12] He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.[13] Charles then attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Hampshire, England,[14] from 1958,[11] followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland,[15] beginning classes there in April 1962.[11] With his parents and sister Anne, October 1957 In Charles's 1994 authorised biography by Jonathan Dimbleby, Elizabeth and Philip were described as physically and emotionally distant parents, and Philip was blamed for his disregard of Charles's sensitive nature and forcing him to attend Gordonstoun, where he was bullied.[16] Though Charles reportedly described Gordonstoun, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts",[14] he subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated".[17] He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse.[18][19] In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education.[20] Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming head boy. He left in 1967 with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.[18][21] On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."[17] Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces.[14] In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read archaeology and anthropology for the first part of the Tripos, and then changed to history for the second part.[22][18] During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term.[18] He graduated from the University of Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree on 23 June 1970, the first British heir apparent to earn a university degree.[18][23] As per tradition, on 2 August 1975, his BA was promoted to a Master of Arts (MA Cantab) degree: at Cambridge, Master of Arts is not a postgraduate degree.[18] Prince of Wales Charles and his first wife, Diana, with Governor of Queensland Sir James Ramsay (far left) and Lady Ramsay (far right), Brisbane, 1983 Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958,[24] though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.[25] He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970,[26] and he made his maiden speech in June 1974,[27] the first royal to speak from the floor since the future Edward VII in 1884.[28] He spoke again in 1975.[29] Charles began to take on more public duties, founding the Prince's Trust in 1976,[30] and travelling to the United States in 1981.[31] In the mid-1970s, Charles expressed an interest in serving as governor-general of Australia, at the suggestion of Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser, but because of a lack of public enthusiasm nothing came of the proposal.[32] Charles commented: "So, what are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are just told you're not wanted?"[33] Military training and career Charles served in the Royal Air Force and, following in the footsteps of his father, grandfather and two of his great-grandfathers, in the Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he requested and received Royal Air Force training, learning to fly the Chipmunk aircraft with Cambridge University Air Squadron. On 8 March 1971, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot.[34] He was presented with his RAF wings in August 1971.[35] After the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served on the guided-missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). In 1974, he qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton, and then joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes.[36] He gave up flying after crash-landing a BAe 146 in Islay in 1994, for which the crew was found negligent by a board of inquiry.[37] On 9 February 1976, Charles took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last ten months of active service in the navy.[36] In 1978, he took part in a parachute training course at RAF Brize Norton after being appointed colonel-in-chief of the Parachute Regiment a year earlier.[38] Relationships and marriages Bachelorhood In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His great-uncle Lord Mountbatten advised him: In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage.[39] Photograph by Allan Warren, 1972 Charles's girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of Sir John Russell, who was British ambassador to Spain;[40] Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington;[41] Davina Sheffield;[42] Lady Sarah Spencer;[43] and Camilla Shand,[44] who later became his second wife.[45] Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with 25-year-old Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, Mountbatten's granddaughter.[46] Charles wrote to Amanda's mother, Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother, expressing interest in her daughter. Lady Brabourne replied approvingly, though she suggested that a courtship with a 16-year-old was premature.[47] Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British viceroy and first governor-general of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple.[48] However, in August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda, but in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the royal family.[48] In June 1980, Charles officially turned down Chevening House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it.[49] In 1977, a newspaper report mistakenly announced his engagement to Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg.[50] Lady Diana Spencer Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer Charles and Diana visit Uluru in Australia, March 1983 Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977 while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While Charles and Diana were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, she mentioned that he had looked forlorn and in need of care at the funeral of his granduncle Lord Mountbatten. Soon, according to Charles's chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride", and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.[51] Charles's cousin Norton Knatchbull and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her.[52] Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.[53] Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981 and their engagement became official on 24 February. They married in St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July of that year. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall from 50% to 25%.[54] The couple lived at Kensington Palace and at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (b. 1984). Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.[12] Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near 13-year age difference.[55][56] By November 1986, Charles had fully resumed his affair with Camilla Parker Bowles (née Shand).[57] In a videotape recorded by Peter Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that by 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."[58][59] It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee,[60] who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.[59][61] Diana later commenced a relationship with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor.[62] Charles and Diana's evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press.[63] Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana: Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced.[63] Persistent suggestions that Hewitt is Prince Harry's father have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time Diana's affair with Hewitt began.[64] In December 1992, British prime minister John Major announced the couple's legal separation in Parliament. In early 1993, the British press published transcripts of a passionate bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989, which was dubbed "Camillagate" and "Tampongate" by the press.[65] Charles sought public understanding in a television film, Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role, with Jonathan Dimbleby that was broadcast on 29 June 1994. In an interview in the film, he confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had rekindled their association in 1986 only after his marriage to Diana had "irretrievably broken down".[66][67] This was followed by Diana's own admission of marital troubles in an interview with the BBC current affairs show Panorama, broadcast on 20 November 1995.[68] Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship.[69] Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996,[70] after being formally advised by the Queen in December 1995 to end the marriage.[71] The couple shared custody of their children.[72] Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August of the following year; Charles flew to Paris with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.[73] Camilla Parker Bowles Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles Charles and Camilla in Jamaica, March 2008 The engagement of Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[74] The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.[75] In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.[76] Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal, though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman,[77] and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.[78] The marriage was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. The venue was subsequently changed to Windsor Guildhall, because a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the wedding, it was postponed from the originally scheduled date of 8 April until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[79] Charles's parents did not attend the civil marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend possibly arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[80] The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and later held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle.[81] The blessing, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, was televised.[82] Official duties See also: List of official overseas trips made by Charles III In 2008, The Daily Telegraph described Charles as the "hardest-working member of the royal family".[83] He carried out 560 official engagements in 2008,[83] 499 in 2010,[84] and over 600 in 2011. During his time as Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of the Queen.[85] He officiated at investitures and attended the funerals of foreign dignitaries.[86] Charles made regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.[87] The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust met three times a year under his chairmanship.[88] In 1970, Charles visited Bermuda to mark the Parliament of Bermuda's 350th anniversary. In his speech to parliament and referring to the actions of Charles I, Charles joked, "Bearing in mind I am the first Charles to have anything to do with a Parliament for 350 years, I might have turned nasty and dissolved you".[89] Charles also represented the Queen at the independence celebrations in Fiji in 1970,[90] the Bahamas in 1973,[91] Papua New Guinea in 1975,[92] Zimbabwe in 1980,[93] and Brunei in 1984.[94] In 1983, Christopher John Lewis, who had fired a shot with a .22 rifle at the Queen in 1981, attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting New Zealand with his first wife, Diana, and son William.[95] While Charles was visiting Australia on Australia Day in January 1994, David Kang fired two shots at him from a starting pistol in protest of the treatment of several hundred Cambodian asylum seekers held in detention camps.[96] In 1995, Charles became the first member of the royal family to visit the Republic of Ireland in an official capacity.[97] In 1997, Charles represented the Queen at the Hong Kong handover ceremony.[98] At the ceremony, he read the Queen's message to Hong Kongers, which said: "Britain is part of Hong Kong's history and Hong Kong is part of Britain's history. We are also part of each other's future".[99] In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales.[100] His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions.[101] For instance, in 2001 he placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,[102] and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.[103] At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with the president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund, which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."[104] In November 2001, Charles was struck in the face with three red carnations by teenager Alina Lebedeva, whilst he was on an official visit to Latvia.[105] Official opening of the Fourth Assembly at the Senedd in Cardiff, Wales, on 7 June 2011. From left to right: Welsh first minister Carwyn Jones, Prince Charles, his wife Camilla, Queen Elizabeth II, and Senedd speaker Rosemary Butler In 2010, Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India.[106] He attends official events in the United Kingdom in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011.[107] From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[108] In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 British charities to help victims of the Syrian civil war.[109] According to The Guardian, it is believed that after turning 65 years old in 2013, Charles donated his state pension to an unnamed charity that supports elderly people.[110] In March 2014, Charles arranged for five million measles-rubella vaccinations for children in the Philippines on the outbreak of measles in South-East Asia. According to Clarence House, Charles was affected by news of the damage caused by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013. International Health Partners, of which he has been Patron since 2004, sent the vaccines, which are believed to protect five million children below the age of five from measles.[111] Letters sent by Charles to government ministers during 2004 and 2005 – the so-called black spider memos – presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom decided that Charles's letters must be released.[112] The letters were published by the Cabinet Office on 13 May 2015.[113] Reaction to the memos upon their release was largely supportive of Charles, with little criticism of him.[114] The memos were variously described in the press as "underwhelming"[115] and "harmless"[116] and that their release had "backfired on those who seek to belittle him",[117] with reaction from the public also supportive.[118] In 2015, it was revealed that Charles had access to confidential UK cabinet papers.[119] Charles's ninth visit to New Zealand in 2015 Charles and Camilla made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy.[120] During the trip, Charles shook hands in Galway with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin and widely believed to be the leader of the IRA, the militant group that had murdered Charles's relatives in a terror attack. The Galway event was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish relations".[121] In the run up to Charles's visit, two Irish republican dissidents were arrested for planning a bomb attack. Semtex and rockets were found at the Dublin home of suspect Donal Ó Coisdealbha, member of a self-styled Óglaigh na hÉireann organisation, who was later jailed for five and a half years.[122] He was connected to a veteran republican, Seamus McGrane of County Louth, a member of the Real IRA, who was jailed for 11 and a half years.[123] Charles made frequent visits to Saudi Arabia in order to promote arms exports for companies such as BAE Systems. In 2013,[124] 2014,[125] and 2015,[126] he met with the commander of Saudi Arabia's National Guard Mutaib bin Abdullah. In February 2014, he took part in a traditional sword dance with members of the Saudi royal family at the Janariyah festival in Riyadh.[127] At the same festival, British arms company BAE Systems was honoured by Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz.[128] Charles was criticised by Scottish MP Margaret Ferrier in 2016 over his role in the sale of Typhoon fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.[129] According to Charles's biographer Catherine Mayer, a Time magazine journalist who claims to have interviewed several sources from Charles's inner circle, he "doesn't like being used to market weaponry" in deals with Saudi Arabia and other Arab Gulf states. According to Mayer, Charles has only raised his objections to being used to sell weapons abroad in private.[130] Commonwealth heads of government decided at their 2018 meeting that Charles would be the next Head of the Commonwealth after the Queen.[131] The head is chosen and therefore not hereditary.[132] With Queen Elizabeth II and other world leaders to mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day on 5 June 2019 On 7 March 2019, the Queen hosted a Buckingham Palace event to mark the 50th anniversary of Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales. Guests at the event included the duch*ess of Cornwall, the Duke and duch*ess of Cambridge, the Duke and duch*ess of Sussex, Prime Minister Theresa May and Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford.[133] The same month, at the request of the British government, Charles and Camilla went on an official tour to Cuba, making them the first British royalty to visit the country. The tour was seen as an effort to form a closer relationship between the UK and Cuba.[134] In January 2020, Charles became the first British patron of the International Rescue Committee, a charity which aims to help refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster.[135] In April 2021 and following a surge in COVID-19 cases in India, Charles issued a statement, announcing the launch of an emergency appeal for India by the British Asian Trust, of which he is the founder. The appeal, called Oxygen for India, helped with buying oxygen concentrators for hospitals in need.[136] On 25 March 2020, it was announced that Charles had contracted COVID-19 during the pandemic. He and his wife subsequently isolated at their Birkhall residence. Camilla was also tested but returned a negative result.[137][138] Clarence House stated that he showed "mild symptoms" but "remains in good health". They further explained, "It is not possible to ascertain from whom the prince caught the virus owing to the high number of engagements he carried out in his public role during recent weeks."[138] Several newspapers were critical that Charles and Camilla were tested promptly at a time when many NHS doctors, nurses and patients had been unable to be tested expeditiously.[139] On 30 March 2020, Clarence House announced that Charles had recovered from the virus, and that, after consulting his doctor, he was no longer isolating.[140] Two days later, he stated in a video that he would continue to practise social distancing.[141] In October 2020, a letter sent by Charles to Australian governor-general John Kerr after the 1975 dismissal from office of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was released as a part of the collection of palace letters regarding the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis.[142] In the letter, Charles appeared to be supportive of Kerr's decision, writing that what Kerr "did last year was right and the courageous thing to do – and most Australians seemed to endorse your decision when it came to the point," adding that he should not worry about "demonstrations and stupidities" that arose following his decision.[142] Delivering a speech in Bridgetown, after Barbados became a republic, November 2021 In November 2021, Charles attended the ceremonies held to mark Barbados's transition into a parliamentary republic, which removed the Queen as Barbadian head of state.[143] Charles was invited by Prime Minister Mia Mottley as the future head of the Commonwealth,[144] and it was the first time that a member of the royal family attended the transition of a realm to a republic.[145] On 10 February 2022, it was announced that Charles had tested positive for COVID-19 for a second time and was self-isolating.[146] His wife later also confirmed contracting the virus, followed by the Queen herself 10 days after Charles's second diagnosis.[147] Charles and his wife had received doses of a COVID-19 vaccine in February 2021.[148] Delivering the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother, May 2022 In May 2022, Charles attended the State Opening of Parliament and delivered the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother as a counsellor of state.[149] In June 2022, The Times reported that Charles had privately described the UK Government's Rwanda asylum plan as "appalling" and feared that it would overshadow the June Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Rwanda, where Charles represented the Queen.[150] It was later reported that cabinet ministers had warned Charles to avoid making political comments, as they feared a constitutional crisis could arise if he continued to make such statements once he became king.[151] Reign Pre-accession polling Prior to acceding to the British throne, opinion polls put Charles's popularity with the British people at 42%,[152] with a 2018 BMG Research poll finding that 46% of Britons wanted Charles to abdicate immediately upon accession to the throne, in favour of William.[153] A 2021 opinion poll reported that 60% of the British public had a favourable opinion of him.[154] Polling suggested that his popularity increased sharply after he became king.[155] Accession and coronation plans See also: Proclamation of accession of Charles III and Coronation of Charles III and Camilla Addressing the Scottish Parliament following his accession as king Charles acceded to the British throne on 8 September 2022, following his mother's death. Charles was the longest-serving British heir apparent, having surpassed Edward VII's record of 59 years on 20 April 2011.[156] When he became monarch at the age of 73, he was the oldest person to do so, the previous record holder being William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.[157] Plans for Charles's coronation have been made for many years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[158] Reports before his accession suggested that Charles's coronation would be simpler and smaller in scale than his mother's in 1953,[159] with the ceremony expected to be "shorter, smaller, less expensive and more representative of different faiths and community groups – falling in line with the King's wish to reflect the ethnic diversity of modern Britain".[160] Nonetheless, the coronation will be a Church of England ceremony and will require a coronation oath, the anointment, the delivery of the orb and the enthronement.[161] Walking in Elizabeth II's funeral cortège towards Westminster Hall six days after her death There had been speculation as to what regnal name Charles would choose upon his succession to the throne. In 2005, it was reported that Charles had suggested he might choose to reign as George VII in honour of his grandfather George VI, and to avoid associations with previous royals named Charles.[162][f] Charles's office said at the time that no decision had yet been made.[163] Following the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Clarence House confirmed that Charles would use the regnal name "Charles III".[164] Charles gave his first speech to the nation on 9 September at 18:00 BST, in which he paid tribute to his mother and announced the appointment of his elder son, William, as Prince of Wales.[165] On 10 September 2022, Charles was publicly proclaimed King of the United Kingdom by the Accession Council. The ceremony was televised for the first time.[166][131] Attendees included the new queen consort, Camilla; William, Prince of Wales; Prime Minister Liz Truss; and her predecessors John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Theresa May, and Boris Johnson.[167] Charles was proclaimed king of each of his other realms by the relevant privy or executive council.[168] The coronation of Charles III and Camilla is due to take place on 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey.[169] Philanthropy and charity Since founding the Prince's Trust with his £7,500 of severance pay from the Navy in 1976,[170] Charles has established 16 more charitable organisations and now serves as president of all of those.[171][85] Together, these form a loose alliance called the Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international."[171] In 2010, the Prince's Charities Canada was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK.[172] Charles is also patron of over 400 other charities and organisations.[173] He uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education.[174] In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects. Along with his two sons, he took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.[174] Charles has also set up the Prince's Charities Australia, which is based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Prince's Charities Australia is to provide a coordinating presence for Charles's Australian and international charitable endeavours.[175] Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena,[176] and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation,[173] a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.[177] In December 2022, Charles contributed to a £1m fund with a "substantial personal donation" for a project organised by the Felix Project charity to provide hundreds of fridges and freezers for food banks.[178] In the aftermath of Elizabeth II's death, Charles asked for the money donated in her memory to be given to the Fuel Bank Foundation, a charity that "provides vouchers for pre-payment meters for gas and electricity."[179] In February 2023, he and Camilla donated to the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) which was helping victims of the 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake.[180] Investigations of donations In 2021 and 2022, two of Charles's charities, the Prince's Foundation and the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund, came under scrutiny for accepting donations that were deemed inappropriate by the media. In August 2021, it was announced that the Prince's Foundation was launching an investigation into the reports that middlemen took cuts for setting up dinners involving wealthy donors and Charles, at that time Prince of Wales, with prices as high as £100,000 and the fixers taking up to 25% of the fees.[181] After temporarily stepping down, Charles's aide Michael Fawcett resigned from his role as chief executive of the Prince's Foundation in November 2021,[182] following reports that he had fixed a CBE for Saudi businessman Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz who donated more than £1.5 million to royal charities contrary to section 1 of the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925.[183] Charles gave Mahfouz his Honorary CBE at a private ceremony in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace in November 2016,[184] though the event was not published in the Court Circular.[185] Clarence House responded that Charles had "no knowledge of the alleged offer of honours or British citizenship on the basis of donation to his charities and fully supports the investigation".[186] The auditing firm EY, which carried out the investigation, published a summary report in December 2021, stating that Fawcett had co-ordinated with "fixers", but there was "no evidence that trustees at the time were aware of these communications".[187] The Charity Commission launched its own investigation into allegations that the donations meant for the Prince's Foundation had been instead sent to the Mahfouz Foundation.[188] In 2021, the foundation was also criticised for accepting a £200,000 donation from Russian convict,[189] Dmitry Leus,[190] whom Charles thanked in a letter,[191] and a £500,000 donation from Taiwanese fugitive Bruno Wang.[192] The donations by the Russian convict led to an investigation by the Scottish Charity Regulator.[193] In February 2022 the Metropolitan Police launched an investigation into the cash-for-honours allegations linked to the foundation.[194] On 31 October 2022, the Metropolitan Police passed their evidence to the Crown Prosecution Service for deliberation.[195] In June 2022, The Times reported that between 2011 and 2015 Charles accepted €3 million in cash from the prime minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani.[196] The funds were said to be in the form of €500 notes, handed over in person in three tranches, in a suitcase, holdall and carrier bags.[196][197] Charles's meetings with Al Thani did not appear in the Court Circular.[196] Coutts collected the cash and each payment was deposited into the accounts of the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund.[197] There is no evidence that the payments were illegal or that it was not intended for the money to go to the charity.[197] The Charity Commission announced they would review the information,[198] and in July 2022, they announced that they would not be launching an investigation into the donations as the information submitted had provided "sufficient assurance" that due diligence had taken place.[199] In the same month, The Times reported that the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund received a donation of £1 million from Bakr bin Laden and Shafiq bin Laden, both half-brothers of Osama bin Laden, during a private meeting in 2013.[200][201] Charles and Bakr bin Laden had known each other since 2000.[201] The Charity Commission described the decision to accept donations as a "matter for trustees" and added that based on the available information no investigation was required.[202] In June 2022, a senior palace aide said that cash donations would no longer be accepted.[203] Personal interests Built environment Charles has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life."[204] In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture.[205] He asserted that "it is possible, and important in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans and traditional scales and at the same time not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments and soft materials,"[205] called for local community involvement in architectural choices, and asked: Why can't we have those curves and arches that express feeling in design? What is wrong with them? Why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?[205] At the newly opened At-Bristol, 14 June 2000 Charles's book and BBC documentary A Vision of Britain (1987) were also critical of modern architecture, and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design,[206] despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities (the Prince's Regeneration Trust and the Prince's Foundation for Building Community, which were later merged into one charity) promote his views, and the village of Poundbury was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall to a master plan by Léon Krier under the guidance of Charles and in line with his philosophy.[204] Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget.[207] In 1999, Charles agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places.[208] While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.[209] From 1997, Charles has visited Romania to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu.[210][211] Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation,[212] and has purchased a house in Romania.[213] Historian Tom Gallagher wrote in the Romanian newspaper România Liberă in 2006 that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down,[214] but Buckingham Palace denied the reports.[215] Charles also has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture", and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.[216] Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism.[217][218] In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks site, labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative.[219] Rogers claimed the Prince had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square, and condemned Charles's actions as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional".[219] Lord Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry, among others, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times complaining that the Prince's "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" subverted the "open and democratic planning process".[220] Piers Gough and other architects condemned Charles's views as "elitist" in a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott a speech given by Charles to RIBA in 2009.[218] CPC Group, the developer of the project, took a case against Qatari Diar to the High Court, which described Charles's intervention as "unwelcome".[221] After the case was settled, the CPC Group apologised to him "for any offence caused by the decision to commence litigation against Qatari Diar and the allegations made by CPC during the course of the proceedings".[221] In 2010, the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[222] The foundation is known for refurbishing historic buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan and Kingston, Jamaica. The project has been called the "biggest challenge yet" for the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment.[223] For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, in 2012 Charles was awarded the Driehaus Architecture Prize for patronage. The prize, awarded by the University of Notre Dame, is considered the highest architecture award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.[224] Livery company commitments The Worshipful Company of Carpenters installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture."[225] Charles is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, an Honorary Freeman and Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, an Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.[226] Natural environment Charles and Camilla meeting Federal Emergency Management Agency officials in Louisiana, as they arrive to tour the damage created by Hurricane Katrina, November 2005 Since the 1970s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness.[227] At the age of 21, he delivered his first speech on environmental issues in his capacity as the chairman of the Welsh Countryside Committee.[228] In order to decrease his carbon footprint, he has used biomass boilers for heating Birkhall, where he has also installed a hydroelectric turbine in the river beside the estate. He has utilised solar panels at Clarence House and Highgrove, and – besides using electric cars on his estates – runs his Aston Martin DB6 on E85.[229] An avid gardener, Charles has also emphasised the importance of talking to plants, stating that "I happily talk to the plants and trees, and listen to them. I think it's absolutely crucial".[230] His interest in gardening began in 1980 when he took over the Highgrove estate.[231] His "healing garden", based on sacred geometry and ancient religious symbolism, went on display at the Chelsea Flower Show in 2002.[231] Upon moving into Highgrove House, Charles developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals,[232] which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to the Prince's Charities.[232][233] His organic interest extends beyond farming into landscaped spaces and Highgrove House practices organic lawn management to increase biodiversity.[234] Documenting work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of The Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, Charles became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. Although the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting organic farms in Saskatchewan, he met the farmers at Assiniboia town hall.[235] In 2004, he founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons.[236] His organic farming has attracted media criticism: According to The Independent in October 2006, "the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme."[237] A prominent critic of the practice,[238] Charles III has also spoken against the use of GM crops and in a letter to British prime minister Tony Blair in 1998, Charles criticised the development of genetically modified foods.[239] He repeated the same sentiments in 2008, arguing that having "one form of clever genetic engineering after another then … will be guaranteed to cause the biggest disaster environmentally of all time."[240] In 2007, Charles received the tenth annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales has been a champion of the natural world ... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans".[241] Charles's travels by private jet drew criticism from Plane Stupid's Joss Garman.[242] In 2007, Charles launched the Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. Speaking to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008, he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), remained seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best."[243] In a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, Charles said that climate change sceptics are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also articulated the need to protect fisheries and the Amazon rainforest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive.[244] In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests.[245] On 27 August 2012, Charles addressed the International Union for Conservation of Nature – World Conservation Congress, supporting the view that grazing animals are needed to keep soils and grassland productive: I have been particularly fascinated, for example, by the work of a remarkable man called Allan Savory, in Zimbabwe and other semi arid areas, who has argued for years against the prevailing expert view that is the simple numbers of cattle that drive overgrazing and cause fertile land to become desert. On the contrary, as he has since shown so graphically, the land needs the presence of feeding animals and their droppings for the cycle to be complete so that soils and grassland areas stay productive. Such that, if you take grazers off the land and lock them away in vast feedlots, the land dies.[246] In February 2014, Charles visited the Somerset levels to meet residents affected by winter flooding. During his visit, Charles remarked that "There's nothing like a jolly good disaster to get people to start doing something. The tragedy is that nothing happened for so long." He pledged a £50,000 donation, provided by the Prince's Countryside Fund, to help families and businesses.[247] In December 2015, Charles delivered a speech at the opening ceremony for COP21, making a plea to industries to put an end to practices that cause deforestation.[248] In August 2019, it was announced that Charles had collaborated with British fashion designers Vin and Omi to produce a line of clothing made out of nettles found in his Highgrove estate. Nettles are a type of plant which are usually "perceived to have no value". The Highgrove plant waste was also used to create the jewellery worn with the dresses.[249] In September 2020, Charles launched RE:TV, an online platform featuring short films and articles on issues such as climate change and sustainability. He serves as the platform's editor-in-chief.[250] The platform later partnered with Amazon Prime Video and WaterBear, another streaming platform dedicated to environmental issues.[251] In the same month, he stated in a speech that a military-style response similar to the Marshall Plan was required to combat climate change.[252] In January 2020, Charles launched the Sustainable Markets Initiative at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Davos, a project which encourages putting sustainability at the centre of all activities.[253] In May 2020, his Sustainable Markets Initiative and the World Economic Forum launched the Great Reset project, a five-point plan concerned with enhancing sustainable economic growth following the global recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.[254] In January 2021, Charles launched Terra Carta ("Earth Charter"), a sustainable finance charter that would ask its signatories to follow a set of rules towards becoming more sustainable and make investments in projects and causes that help with preserving the environment.[255] In July 2021, Charles and Jony Ive announced the Terra Carta Design Lab, a competition conceived by the Royal College of Art to find solutions to climate change and environmental issues, winners of which would be supported financially and introduced to the industry leads of the Sustainable Markets Initiative.[256] In September 2021, he launched the Food for the Future initiative, a programme with contributions from Jimmy Doherty and Jamie Oliver which aims to educate secondary school children about the food system and eliminating food waste.[257] In his role as patron of the National Hedgelaying Society, Charles has hosted receptions for the organisation's rural competition at his Highgrove estate to assist with preserving hedgerows planted in the UK.[258] In June 2021, Charles attended a reception hosted by the Queen during the 47th G7 summit, and a meeting between G7 leaders and sustainable industry CEOs to discuss governmental and corporate solutions to environmental problems.[259] In October 2021, he delivered a speech at the 2021 G20 Rome summit, describing COP26 as "the last chance saloon" for preventing climate change and asking for actions that would lead to a green-led sustainable economy.[260] In his speech at the opening ceremony for COP26, he repeated his sentiments from the previous year, stating that "a vast military-style campaign" was needed "to marshal the strength of the global private sector" for tackling climate change.[261] In 2021, Charles spoke to the BBC about the environment and said two days a week he eats no meat nor fish and one day a week he eats no dairy products.[262] In 2022, it was reported that he eats a breakfast of fruit salad, seeds and tea. He does not eat lunch, but takes a break for tea at 5 p.m. and eats dinner at 8:30 p.m. and then returns to work until midnight or after.[263] Ahead of Christmas dinner 2022, Charles confirmed to animal rights group PETA that foie gras would not be served at any royal residences. As Prince of Wales, he had stopped the use of foie gras at his own properties for more than a decade before taking the throne.[264] Charles, who is patron of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, launched the Climate Action Scholarships for students from small island nations in partnership with University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, University of Melbourne, McMaster University and University of Montreal in March 2022.[265] In September 2022, Charles hosted the Global Allergy Symposium at Dumfries House with the Natasha Allergy Research Foundation and 16 allergy experts from around the world to discuss factors behind new emerging allergies, including biodiversity loss and climate change.[266] In October 2022, it was reported that British prime minister Liz Truss had advised the King against attending COP27, to which he had agreed.[267] Alternative medicine See also: The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health and The College of Medicine Charles and Camilla with NIH director Elias Zerhouni (second from left) and Surgeon-General Richard Carmona (right), November 2005 Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine.[268] He first expressed his interest in alternative medicine publicly in December 1982 in an address to the British Medical Association (BMA).[269] This speech was seen as 'combative' and 'critical' of modern medicine, and was met with anger by some medical professionals.[270] The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service patients.[271][272] In June 2004, during a speech to healthcare professionals at a conference, he advocated using Gerson therapy treatments, such as coffee enemas, to treat cancer patients and said he knew of a terminally ill cancer patient who was cured with them.[273][272][274] He said: "I know of one patient who turned to Gerson Therapy having been told that she was suffering from terminal cancer, and would not survive another course of chemotherapy. Happily, seven years later she is alive and well."[273] These comments drew criticism from medical professionals such as Michael Baum.[275] In May 2006, Charles made a speech at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, urging the integration of conventional and alternative medicine and arguing for homeopathy.[276] In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the FIH countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information ... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies."[277] That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh, mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales", called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.[278] Charles's Duchy Originals produced a variety of complementary medicinal products including a "Detox Tincture" that Edzard Ernst denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery".[279] In 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying that it was misleading.[279] Charles personally wrote at least seven letters[280] to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.[281] In October 2009, it was reported that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.[279] In April 2010, following accounting irregularities, a former official at the FIH and his wife were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000.[282] Four days later, the FIH announced its closure, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health."[283] The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison.[284] The FIH was re-branded and re-launched later in 2010 as The College of Medicine,[284][285] of which Charles became a patron in 2019.[286] In 2016, Charles said in a speech that he used homeopathic veterinary medicines to reduce antibiotic use at his farm.[287] He drew criticism after becoming a patron of the Faculty of Homeopathy on 27 June 2019.[288] Sports From his youth until 1992, Charles was an avid player of competitive polo. He continued to play informally, including for charity, until 2005.[289] He was occasionally injured after falling off horses,[290] and underwent two operations in 1990 to fix fractures in his right arm.[291] Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it. The League Against Cruel Sports launched an attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999. At that time, the government was trying to ban hunting with hounds.[292] In 2001, he broke a small bone in his left shoulder while hunting in Derbyshire.[293] Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supports Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.[294] Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.[295] Aside from hunting, Charles has also participated in target rifle competitions, representing the House of Lords in the Vizianagram Match (Lords vs. Commons) at Bisley.[296] He became President of the British National Rifle Association in 1977.[297] Visual, performing and contemporary arts Charles is president or patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, which include the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing harpists to the Royal Court, by appointing an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales. As an undergraduate at Cambridge, he played the cello and has sung with the Bach Choir twice.[298] He was a member of Dryden Society, Trinity College's drama group, and appeared in sketches and revues.[299] Charles founded The Prince's Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is president of the Royal Shakespeare Company and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company's annual general meeting.[298] He enjoys comedy,[300] and is interested in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the "cups and balls" effect.[301] Charles has also been patron of the British Film Institute since 1978.[302] Charles is a keen and accomplished watercolourist who has exhibited and sold a number of his works to raise money for his charities and also published books on the subject. To mark the 25th anniversary of his investiture as the Prince of Wales in 1994, the Royal Mail issued a series of postage stamps which featured his paintings.[303] For his 50th birthday, 50 of his watercolours were exhibited at Hampton Court Palace.[303] In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art.[304] In 2016, it was estimated that he had sold lithographs of his watercolours for a total of £2 million from a shop at his Highgrove House residence.[303] For his 70th birthday in 2018, his works were exhibited at the National Gallery of Australia.[303] In 2022, 79 of his paintings were put on display in London.[303] He is Honorary President of the Royal Academy of Arts Development Trust.[305] Charles was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts, particularly in regard to young people.[306] On 23 April 2016, Charles appeared in a comedy sketch for the Royal Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare Live! at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare's death in 1616. The event was televised live by the BBC. Charles made a surprise entrance to settle the disputed delivery of Hamlet's celebrated line, "To be or not to be, that is the question".[307] In 2015, Charles commissioned 12 paintings of D-Day veterans, which went on display at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace during The Last of The Tide exhibition.[308] In January 2022, he commissioned seven artists to paint portraits of seven Holocaust survivors. The paintings were exhibited at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse and were featured in a BBC Two documentary titled Survivors: Portraits of the Holocaust.[309] Publications Main article: Bibliography of Charles III Charles is the author of several books, and has contributed a foreword or preface to books by others. He has also written, presented, or been featured in documentary films.[310] Religion and philosophy With Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský, 2010 Shortly after his accession to the throne, Charles publicly described himself as "a committed Anglican Christian".[311] The King is the supreme governor of the Church of England.[312] He is also a member of the Church of Scotland, and he swore an oath to uphold that church immediately after he was proclaimed king in September 2022.[313] Charles was confirmed at age 16 by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey at Easter 1965, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[314] He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove,[315] and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he served as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.[316][317] Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed his "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William.[318] From van der Post, Charles developed a focus on philosophy and interest in other religions.[319] Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World,[320] which won a Nautilus Book Award.[321] Charles has visited Eastern Orthodox monasteries on Mount Athos,[322] in Romania[210] and in Serbia,[323] and attended the consecration of Britain's first Syriac Orthodox cathedral, St Thomas Cathedral, Acton.[324] In 2019, he attended the service in Rome at which Pope Francis declared the canonisation of Cardinal Newman.[325] He also met with Eastern Church leaders in Jerusalem in 2020. The visit culminated in an ecumenical service in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and a walk through the city accompanied by Christian and Muslim dignitaries.[326] Charles is patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, and attended the inauguration of the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a multicultural context.[216][327] In his 1994 documentary with Jonathan Dimbleby, Charles said that he wished to be seen as a "defender of faith" as king, rather than the monarch's traditional title of "Defender of the Faith", in order to respect other people's religious traditions.[328] This attracted controversy at the time, as well as speculation that the coronation oath may be altered.[329] He stated in 2015 that he would retain the title of "Defender of the Faith", whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.[330] Charles reaffirmed this theme shortly after his accession and declared that his duties as sovereign included "the duty to protect the diversity of our country, including by protecting the space for faith itself and its practice through the religions, cultures, traditions and beliefs to which our hearts and minds direct us as individuals."[311] His inclusive multi-faith approach and his own Christian beliefs were also evident in his first Christmas message as king, broadcast on 25 December 2022.[331] Media image Since his birth, Charles has received close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and their aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king, such as the 2014 play King Charles III.[332] Known for expressing his opinions, when asked during an interview to mark his 70th birthday whether this would continue in the same way once he is king, he responded "No. It won't. I'm not that stupid. I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign. So, of course, you know, I understand entirely how that should operate".[333] Charles and Diana with US president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan in November 1985 Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s,[334] Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana.[335] After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. In 2003, Diana's butler Paul Burrell published a note that he claimed had been written by Diana in 1995, in which there were allegations that Charles was "planning 'an accident' in [Diana's] car, brake failure and serious head injury" so that he could marry again.[336] When questioned by the Metropolitan Police inquiry team as a part of Operation Paget, Charles told the authorities that he did not know about his former wife's note from 1995 and could not understand why she had these feelings.[337] Other people who were formerly connected with Charles have betrayed his confidence. In 1995, he obtained an injunction that prevented a former housekeeper's memoirs from being published in the United Kingdom, although they eventually sold 100,000 copies in the United States.[338] Later, an ex-member of his household handed the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. Charles responded: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor".[339] Reaction to press treatment In 1994, German tabloid Bild published nude photos of Charles that were taken while he was vacationing in Le Barroux.[340] They were reportedly put up for sale for £30,000.[340] Buckingham Palace reacted by stating that it was "unjustifiable for anybody to suffer this sort of intrusion".[341] In 2002, Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" when addressing "scores of editors, publishers and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism.[342][343] Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism", he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions."[343] But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."[343] Charles's anguish was recorded in his private comments to Prince William, caught on a microphone during a press photo-call in 2005 and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered: "These bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."[344] In 2006, Charles filed a court case against The Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks".[345][85] Mark Bolland, his ex-private secretary, declared in a statement to the High Court that Charles "would readily embrace the political aspects of any contentious issue he was interested in ... He carried it out in a very considered, thoughtful and researched way. He often referred to himself as a 'dissident' working against the prevailing political consensus."[345] Jonathan Dimbleby reported that Charles "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."[346] In 2006, Clive Goodman, the royal editor of the News of the World pleaded guilty to hacking the phones of staff at the Prince of Wales's residence.[347] In 2011, Charles and Camilla were named as individuals whose confidential information was reportedly targeted or actually acquired in conjunction with the news media phone hacking scandal.[348] In 2015, The Independent noted that Charles would only speak to broadcasters "on the condition they have signed a 15-page contract, demanding that Clarence House attends both the 'rough cut' and 'fine cut' edits of films and, if it is unhappy with the final product, can 'remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme'."[349] This contract stipulated that all questions directed at Charles must be pre-approved and vetted by representatives of Charles.[349] Guest appearances on television Charles has occasionally appeared on television. In 1984, he read his children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar for the BBC's Jackanory series. The UK soap opera Coronation Street featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000,[350] as did the New Zealand young adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country.[351] Charles was interviewed with Princes William and Harry by Ant & Dec to mark the 30th anniversary of the Prince's Trust in 2006[352] and in 2016 was interviewed by them again along with his sons and the duch*ess of Cornwall to mark the 40th anniversary.[353] His saving of the Scottish stately home Dumfries House was the subject of Alan Titchmarsh's documentary Royal Restoration, which aired on TV in May 2012.[354] Also in May 2012, Charles tried his hand at being a weather presenter for the BBC, reporting the forecast for Scotland as part of their annual week at Holyrood Palace alongside Christopher Blanchett. He injected humour in his report, asking, "Who the hell wrote this script?" as references were made to royal residences.[355] Residences and finance Clarence House, Charles's official residence as Prince of Wales from 2003 Clarence House, previously the residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was Charles's official London residence from 2003 after being renovated at a cost of £4.5 million.[356][357] He previously shared Apartments 8 and 9 at Kensington Palace with his first wife, Diana, before moving to York House, St James's Palace, which remained his principal residence until 2003.[357] As Prince of Wales, his primary source of income was generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Highgrove House in Gloucestershire is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Charles rents for £336,000 per annum.[358] The Public Accounts Committee published its 25th report into the Duchy of Cornwall accounts in November 2013 noting that the duchy performed well in 2012–13, increasing its total income and producing an overall surplus of £19.1 million.[359] In 2007 Charles purchased a 192-acre property (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres of woodland) in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the duch*ess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the couple is not in residence.[360] A neighbouring family said the proposals flouted local planning regulations, and the application was put on hold temporarily while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population.[361] Charles and Camilla first stayed at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008.[362] They also stay at Birkhall for some holidays, which is a private residence on the Balmoral Castle estate in Scotland, and was previously used by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[363] In 2016 it was reported that his estates received £100,000 a year in European Union agricultural subsidies.[364] Since 1993 Charles has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated 2013.[365] In December 2012, HM Revenue and Customs were asked to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall.[366] The Duchy of Cornwall is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The papers show that the Duchy invested in a Bermuda-based carbon credits trading company run by one of Charles's Cambridge contemporaries. The investment was kept secret but there is no suggestion that Charles or the estate avoided UK tax.[367] In November 2022, the King asked for one-off payments of up to £600 to be made to royal household employees on top of their monthly salary to help them during the cost of living crisis.[368] In January 2023 and following the Crown Estate's announcement of six new offshore wind energy lease agreements, Charles instructed the Keeper of the Privy Purse to inform the prime minister and the chancellor that he wished for the windfall to "be directed for wider public good, rather than to the Sovereign Grant."[369][370] Titles, styles, honours and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles III See also: List of awards received by Charles III A logo with "CR III" and a crown (coloured) Royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Tudor Crown[371] A logo with "CR III" and a crown Scottish royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Crown of Scotland[371] Titles and styles Charles was originally styled "His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh".[372] On his mother's accession in 1952, he automatically acquired the Duchy of Cornwall as the monarch's eldest son and became known as "His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall". Though he continued to hold the title until his accession in 2022, this style was superseded when he was created Prince of Wales in 1958. From then on until he became king, he was generally styled "His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales". In Scotland he was styled, from his mother's accession until his own, "His Royal Highness The Duke of Rothesay" instead. Between the death of his father in 2021 and his own accession, Charles also held the title of Duke of Edinburgh.[373] The title merged with the Crown upon his accession to the throne.[374] Since his accession, Charles has been styled "His Majesty The King". When conversing with the King, the traditional etiquette is to address him initially as Your Majesty and thereafter as Sir.[375] Honours and military appointments Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was commissioned as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, he has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.[376] Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded him the highest honorary rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[377] Charles has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Arms Main articles: Arms of the United Kingdom and Arms of Canada On his mother's death, Charles became king and therefore inherited the royal coats of arms of the United Kingdom and of Canada. The design of his royal cypher, featuring a depiction of the Tudor crown instead of St Edward's Crown, was announced on 27 September 2022. According to the College of Arms, the Tudor crown will now be used in representations of the royal arms of the United Kingdom and on uniforms and crown badges.[378] As Prince of Wales, Charles used the arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a white label, and an inescutcheon of the Principality of Wales surmounted by the heir apparent's crown. Coat of arms of the Prince of Wales.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg Royal Coat of Arms of Canada.svg Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022) Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland Royal coat of arms of Canada Banners, flags, and standards As heir apparent Banner of arms Royal Standard of the Prince of Wales Standard for Wales Standard for Scotland Banner of arms of the Duke of Cornwall Standard of the Prince of Wales for personal use in Canada The banners used by Charles whilst Prince of Wales varied depending upon location. His personal standard was the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms with a label of three points Argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. It is used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.[379] The personal flag for use in Wales was based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon Vert bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.[379] In Scotland, the personal banner used since 1974 was based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay (heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants display a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.[379] In Cornwall, the banner was the arms of the Duke of Cornwall: "Sable 15 bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing 15 gold coins.[379] In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales for use in Canada, consisting of the shield of the Arms of Canada defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, and a white label of three points.[380] As sovereign Royal Standard United Kingdom (outside Scotland) Scotland Main article: Royal Standard of the United Kingdom The Royal Standard is used to represent the King in the United Kingdom and overseas when he makes official visits. It is the royal arms in banner form undifferentiated, having been used by successive British monarchs since 1702. Issue Name Birth Marriage Children Date Spouse William, Prince of Wales 21 June 1982 (age 40) 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 15 September 1984 (age 38) 19 May 2018 Meghan Markle Archie Mountbatten-Windsor Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor Ancestry Ancestors of Charles III[381] See also Cultural depictions of Charles III List of current monarchs of sovereign states List of covers of Time magazine (1960s), (1970s), (1980s), (2010s) Notes As the reigning monarch, Charles does not usually use a family name, but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] As monarch, Charles is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He is also a member of the Church of Scotland. In addition to his active service listed here, Charles holds ranks and honorary appointments in the armed forces of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea as well as the United Kingdom. In addition to the United Kingdom, the fourteen other realms are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. Prince Charles's godparents were: the King of the United Kingdom (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his paternal cousin twice removed and maternal great-great-uncle by marriage, for whom Charles's great-great-uncle the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).[6] The Stuart kings Charles I, who was beheaded, and Charles II who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle. Charles Edward Stuart, once a Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish thrones, was called "Charles III" by his supporters.[162] References "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. 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"Diana letter 'warned of car plot'". CNN. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Eleftheriou-Smith, Loulla-Mae (30 August 2017). "Princess Diana letter claims Prince Charles was 'planning an accident' in her car just 10 months before fatal crash". The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Rayner, Gordon (20 December 2007). "Princess Diana letter: 'Charles plans to kill me'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2020. Badshah, Nadeem (19 June 2021). "Police interviewed Prince Charles over 'plot to kill Diana'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2021. Higham, Nick (14 September 2012). "Analysis: The Royal Family's history of legal action". BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2022. Duffy, Jonathan (23 November 2004). "The rise of the meritocracy". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012. Williams, Rhys (7 September 1994). "'Hunky' Prince is exposed to public gaze". The Independent. 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"Phone hacking: who's who in the News International scandal". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 December 2022. Burrell, Ian (2 December 2015). "The 15-page contract that reveals how Charles tries to control the media". The Independent. Retrieved 21 April 2022. "Prince stars in live soap". BBC News. 8 December 2000. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012. "Bro'Town Goes Global". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.; Smith, Dave (10 May 2012). "Prince Charles, The Weather Man: Watch His On-Air Debut For BBC Scotland [VIDEO]". IB Times. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "Ant And Dec To Interview Prince Charles, William And Harry » Entertainmentwise". Entertainmentwise. 2 June 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2023. "Prince Charles reflects on 40 years of The Prince's Trust". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. "Prince Charles: The Royal Restoration". 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Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013. "Prince Charles's estate made big profit on stake in friend's offshore firm". The Guardian. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. "King to pay staff bonus of up to £600 to help with rise in cost of living". The Guardian. 12 November 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2023. Coughlan, Sean (19 January 2023). "King Charles to divert Crown Estate windfall to 'public good'". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2023. Mills, Rhiannon (19 January 2023). "King Charles asks for profits from £1bn wind farm deal to go to 'wider public good' - and not to the royals". Sky News. Retrieved 19 January 2023. "King Charles: New royal cypher revealed". BBC News. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022. "The London Gazette, Issue 38452, Page 5889". 9 November 1948. "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". College of Arms. 9 April 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.; "Prince Philip's Duke of Edinburgh title will pass to another royal when Charles is king". 9Honey. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021. "Who is Duke of Edinburgh now?". National World. 12 September 2022. Greeting a member of The Royal Family, Royal Household, 15 January 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 "The Prince of Wales visits the Royal Gurkha Rifles and Knole House". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "The Queen Appoints the Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank". The Prince of Wales website. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.; "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.; "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557. "Royal Cypher". College of Arms. Retrieved 28 September 2022. "Standards". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016. "The Prince of Wales". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016. Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1. Sources Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-949087-6. Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-12996-X. Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6. Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. OCLC 59360110. Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0. Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-20108-9. Further reading Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10950-9. Bower, Tom (2018). The Rebel Prince, The Power, Passion and Defiance of Prince Charles. William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-829173-0. Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-54019-0. Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0. Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9. Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3. Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-89565-029-0. Graham, Caroline (2005). Camilla and Charles: The Love Story. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84454-195-9. Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. (Prince of Wales Charles). New York: Arbor House. Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0. Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-306-9. Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-55584-309-0. Holden, Anthony (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50175-3. Holden, Anthony (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99744-7. Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9. Jobson, Robert (2018). Charles at Seventy – Thoughts, Hopes & Dreams: Thoughts, Hopes and Dreams. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-78606-887-3. Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255900-3. Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles: a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2. Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker. ISBN 978-0-213-16568-0. Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04048-2. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1-62779-438-1. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4. Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1. Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the Clown Prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-905018-50-8. Smith, Sally Bedell (2017). Prince Charles: The Passions and Paradoxes of an Improbable Life. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0. Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-57558-021-0. Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers. External links The King at the Royal Family website King Charles III at the website of the Government of Canada Charles III at IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Charles III House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg Born: 14 November 1948 Regnal titles Preceded by Elizabeth II King of the United Kingdom, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent Heir apparent: The Prince of Wales Honorary titles Preceded by Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent British royalty Vacant Title last held by Edward (VIII) Prince of Wales 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022 Succeeded by The Prince William Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded by The Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh 9 April 2021 – 8 September 2022 Merged with the Crown Academic offices Preceded by The Earl Mountbatten of Burma President of the United World Colleges 1978–1995 Succeeded by The Queen of Jordan Preceded by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother President of the Royal College of Music 1993–present Incumbent Honorary titles Preceded by The Duke of Gloucester Great Master of the Order of the Bath 10 June 1974 – 8 September 2022 Vacant Order of precedence First Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom The King Succeeded by The Prince of Wales vte Charles III Links to related articles Portals: icon Monarchy flag United Kingdom flag England flag Cornwall icon London flag Scotland flag Wales icon Northern Ireland flag Australia flag Belize flag Canada flag Jamaica flag New Zealand flag Tuvalu Charles III at Wikipedia's sister projects: Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century19th century 20th century Decades: 1880s1890s1900s1910s1920s Years: 1897189818991900190119021903 1900 in topic Humanities Archaeology – Architecture – Art Film - Literature – Music - (jazz) By country Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Bulgaria – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela Other topics Rail transport – Science – Sports Lists of leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works category Works vte 1900 in various calendars Gregorian calendar 1900 MCM Ab urbe condita 2653 Armenian calendar 1349 ԹՎ ՌՅԽԹ Assyrian calendar 6650 Baháʼí calendar 56–57 Balinese saka calendar 1821–1822 Bengali calendar 1307 Berber calendar 2850 British Regnal year 63 Vict. 1 – 64 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2444 Burmese calendar 1262 Byzantine calendar 7408–7409 Chinese calendar 己亥年 (Earth Pig) 4596 or 4536 — to — 庚子年 (Metal Rat) 4597 or 4537 Coptic calendar 1616–1617 Discordian calendar 3066 Ethiopian calendar 1892–1893 Hebrew calendar 5660–5661 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1956–1957 - Shaka Samvat 1821–1822 - Kali Yuga 5000–5001 Holocene calendar 11900 Igbo calendar 900–901 Iranian calendar 1278–1279 Islamic calendar 1317–1318 Japanese calendar Meiji 33 (明治33年) Javanese calendar 1829–1830 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 or 13 days Korean calendar 4233 Minguo calendar 12 before ROC 民前12年 Nanakshahi calendar 432 Thai solar calendar 2442–2443 Tibetan calendar 阴土猪年 (female Earth-Pig) 2026 or 1645 or 873 — to — 阳金鼠年 (male Iron-Rat) 2027 or 1646 or 874 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1900. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1900th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 900th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1900, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 17), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 13 days until February 28 (O.S. February 15), 2100. The year 1900 also marked the Year of the Rat on the Chinese calendar. Events January Main article: January 1900 January 2 – U.S. Secretary of State John Hay announces the Open Door Policy, to promote American trade with China. January 3 – The United States Census estimates the country's population to be about 70 million people. January 5 – Dr. Henry A. Rowland of Johns Hopkins University announces a theory about the cause of the Earth's magnetism. January 6 – Second Boer War: Boers attempt to end the Siege of Ladysmith, which leads to the Battle of Platrand. January 9 - The first through passenger train goes from Cairo to Khartoum. January 14 Puccini's opera Tosca premieres in Rome, Italy. The U.S. Senate accepts the British-German Treaty of 1899, in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the American Samoa portion of the Samoan Islands. Second Boer War: Boers at Spion Kop, 1900 January 24 – Second Boer War – Battle of Spion Kop: Boer troops defeat the British Army. Boxer Soldiers January 27 – Boxer Rebellion: Foreign diplomats in Peking, Qing Dynasty China, demand that the Boxer rebels be disciplined. January 31 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of the Mat Salleh Rebellion in North Borneo, is shot dead in Tambunan. February Main article: February 1900 Plaque recording the location of the formation of the British Labour Party in 1900. February 5 – The United Kingdom and the United States sign a treaty for the building of a Central American shipping canal across Central America in Nicaragua. February 6 – The International Arbitration Court at The Hague is created, when the Netherlands' Senate ratifies an 1899 peace conference decree. February 8 – Second Boer War: British troops defeat the Boers at Ladysmith, South Africa. February 14 – Second Boer War: Battle of Paardeberg – 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State. February 15 – Second Boer War: The Siege of Kimberley is lifted. February 16 – The Southern Cross expedition led by Carsten Borchgrevink achieved a new Farthest South of 78° 50'S, making the first landing at the Great Ice Barrier.[1] February 17 – Second Boer War: Battle of Paardeberg – British troops defeat the Boers. February 27 The British Labour Party is officially established, at a meeting in the Congregational Memorial Hall in London, and Ramsay MacDonald is appointed as its first secretary. Second Boer War: British military leaders accept the unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé. FC Bayern, Germany's most successful football club, is founded in Munich. March Main article: March 1900 March 5 – Two U.S. Navy cruisers are sent to Central America to protect American interests in a dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. March 6 – A coal mine explosion in West Virginia, United States, kills 50 miners. March 14 Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovers Mendel's Laws of Heredity. The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing the United States currency on the gold standard.[2] March 16 – British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans purchases the land on Crete on which the ruins of the Palace of Knossos stand. He begins to unearth some of the palace three days later. March 18 – AFC Ajax, a successful football club in Netherlands, is founded in Amsterdam.[3] March 23 – Dr. Karl Landsteiner first reports his discovery of an accurate means for classifying a system of blood type, which will universally be referred to as the ABO blood group system[4] and for which he will be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930. March 27 – The arrival of a Russian naval fleet in Korea causes concern to the Imperial Japanese government. April Main article: April 1900 Exposition Universelle view in Paris April 14 – The Exposition Universelle, a world's fair, opens in Paris. April 22 – Battle of Kousséri: French forces secure their domination of Chad. Warlord Rabih az-Zubayr is defeated and killed. May Main article: May 1900 May – American explorer Robert Peary is the first person to sight Kaffeklubben Island.[5] May 1 – Scofield Mine disaster: An explosion of blasting powder in a coal mine in Scofield, Utah, United States, kills 200 people. May 14 – The second Olympic Games, Paris 1900, open (as part of the Paris World Exhibition). May 17 Second Boer War: The British Army relieves the Siege of Mafeking. Boxer Rebellion: Boxers destroy three villages near Peking, and kill 60 Chinese Christians. L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is published in Chicago, the first of Baum's Oz books, chronicling the fictional Land of Oz for children. May 18 – The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga.[6] May 21 – Russia invades Manchuria. May 24 – Second Boer War: The British annex the Orange Free State, as the Orange River Colony. May 28 – Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers attack Belgians, in the Fengtai railway station. May 29 – N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad, is founded as Fort-Lamy, by French commander Émile Gentil. May 31 – Boxer Rebellion: Peacekeepers from various European countries arrive in China, where they join with Japanese forces. June Main article: June 1900 June 1 – American temperance agitator Carrie Nation begins her crusade to demolish saloons. June 5 – Second Boer War: British soldiers take Pretoria. June 14 – The Reichstag approves the second of the German Naval Laws allowing expansion of the Imperial German Navy. June 17 – Boxer Rebellion – Battle of Dagu Forts: Naval forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture the Taku Forts, on the Hai River estuary in China. June 20 – Boxer Rebellion: Boxers gather about 20,000 people near Peking, and kill hundreds of European citizens, including the German ambassador. June 25 – The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, where they have been sealed since the early 11th century. June 30 – Hoboken Docks fire: A wharf fire at the docks in Hoboken, New Jersey, owned by the North German Lloyd Steamship line, spreads to German passenger ships Saale, Main, and Bremen. The fire engulfs the adjacent piers and nearby ships, killing 326 people. July 9: Australia, founded. July Main article: July 1900 July 2 – The first zeppelin flight is carried out over Lake Constance, near Friedrichshafen, Germany. July 12 – A German cruise liner, the SS Deutschland, breaks the record for the Blue Riband for the first time with an average speed of 22.4 knots (41.5 km/h). July 23–25 – The First Pan-African Conference is held in London. July 29 – King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci in Monza. August Main article: August 1900 August — The first Michelin Guide is published in France.[7][8] August 14 – Boxer Rebellion: An international contingent of troops, under British command, invades Peking and frees the European hostages. September Main article: September 1900 September 8 – The 1900 Galveston hurricane kills about 6,000–12,000 people. September 12 – Admiral Fredrik von Otter becomes Prime Minister of Sweden. September 13 – Philippine–American War – Battle of Pulang Lupa: Filipino resistance fighters defeat a detachment of American soldiers. September 17 – Philippine–American War – Battle of Mabitac: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat the Americans, under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham. October Main article: October 1900 October 9 – The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom. October 19 – Max Planck discovers the law of black-body radiation (Planck's law), by introducing the notion of light quanta, leading in 1905 to Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect and beginning the Quantum Revolution.[9] October 25 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal. November Main article: November 1900 November 6 – 1900 United States presidential election: Republican incumbent William McKinley is reelected by defeating Democratic challenger William Jennings Bryan in a rematch. November 29 – Herbert Kitchener succeeds Frederick Roberts as commander-in-chief of the British forces in South Africa and implements a scorched earth strategy.[10] December Main article: December 1900 December 14 – Max Planck announces his discovery of the law of black body emission, marking the birth of quantum physics. December 19 – Hopetoun Blunder: The first Governor-General of Australia John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, appoints Sir William Lyne premier of the new state of New South Wales, but he is unable to persuade other colonial politicians to join his government, and is forced to resign. December 27 – British human rights activist Emily Hobhouse arrives in Cape Town, South Africa. Date unknown Australasian prospector Albert Fuller Ellis identifies phosphate deposits on the Pacific Islands of Nauru and Banaba Island (Ocean Island). In New Haven, Connecticut, U.S., Louis Lassen of Louis' Lunch makes the first modern-day hamburger sandwich. Four out of every 1,000 residents of British India die of cholera each year.[11] Births Content January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December · Date unknown January Chiune Sugihara William Haines Queen Maria of Yugoslavia Hyman G. Rickover January 1 Mieczysław Batsch, Polish footballer (d. 1977) Paola Borboni, Italian film actress (d. 1995)[12] Xavier Cugat, Cuban bandleader (d. 1990)[13] Hub van Doorne, Dutch businessman (d. 1979) Chiune Sugihara, Japanese diplomat, saved Jewish WWII refugees (d. 1986)[14] January 2 William Haines, American actor (d. 1973) Mansaku Itami, Japanese film director (tuberculosis) (d. 1946) Józef Klotz, Polish footballer (d. 1941) Una Ledingham, British physician, known for research on diabetes in pregnancy (d. 1965)[15] January 3 Maurice Jaubert, French composer and soldier (d. 1940) Ernst Neubach, Austrian screenwriter, producer, and director (d. 1968) January 4 James Bond, American ornithologist (d. 1989) William Young, British World War I veteran (d. 2007) January 5 George Magrill, American film actor (d. 1952) Yves Tanguy, French painter (d. 1955) January 6 Queen Maria of Yugoslavia (1922-1934) (d. 1961)[16] John Sinclair, American actor (d. 1945) Emmanuel d'Astier de La Vigerie, French journalist and politician (d. 1969) January 8 Dorothy Adams, American character actress (d. 1988)[17] François de Menthon, French politician, professor of law (d. 1984) January 9 – Richard Halliburton, American adventurer and writer (d. 1939) January 10 – Jean Gehret, Swedish actor and director (d. 1956) January 11 – Lloyd French, American film director (d. 1950) January 13 – Shimizugawa Motokichi, Japanese sumo wrestler (d. 1967) January 16 Kiku Amino, Japanese author, translator (d. 1978)[18] Edith Frank, German-Dutch mother of Anne Frank (d. 1945)[19] January 18 – Wan Laiming, Chinese animator (d. 1997) January 20 Dorothy Annan, English painter, potter, and muralist (d. 1983) Colin Clive, British actor (d. 1937) January 22 Ernst Busch, German singer and actor (d. 1980) René Pellos, French artist (d. 1998) January 23 – William Ifor Jones, Welsh conductor, organist (d. 1988) January 24 – Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ukrainian geneticist, evolutionary biologist (d. 1975) January 26 – Karl Ristenpart, German conductor (d. 1967) January 27 – Hyman G. Rickover, American admiral (d. 1986) January 28 – Rajagopala Tondaiman, King of Pudukkottai (d. 1950) January 30 – Martita Hunt, Argentine-born British actress (d. 1969)[20] January 31 – Betty Parsons, American artist, art dealer and collector (d. 1982)[21] February Adlai Stevenson II Jeanne Aubert Halina Konopacka February 2 Anni Frind, German lyric soprano (d. 1987)[22] Józef Kowalski, Polish supercentenarian, one of the last surviving veterans of the Polish–Soviet War (d. 2013) February 4 – Jacques Prévert, French lyricist and author (d. 1977) February 5 – Adlai Stevenson, American politician (d. 1965) February 11 Ellen Broe, Danish nurse, pioneer in nursing education (d. 1994)[23] Hans-Georg Gadamer, German philosopher (d. 2002) Jōsei Toda, Japanese educator and activist (d. 1958) February 12 Vasily Chuikov, Marshal of the Soviet Union during WWII (d. 1982) Roger J. Traynor, American judge (d. 1983) February 13 – Barbara von Annenkoff, Russian-born German film and stage actress (d. 1979) February 21 Józef Adamek, Polish footballer (d. 1974) Jeanne Aubert, French singer and actress (d. 1988)[24] February 22 – Luis Buñuel, Spanish film director (d. 1983) February 24 – Irmgard Bartenieff, German-American dancer, physical therapist and leading pioneer of dance therapy (d. 1981) February 25 Richard Hollingshead, American inventor of the drive-in theatre (d. 1975) Illa Martin, German dendrologist, botanist, conservationist and dentist (d. 1988) Madame Satã, Brazilian drag performer and capoeirista (d. 1976) February 26 – Halina Konopacka, Polish athlete (d. 1989)[25] February 28 – Wolfram Hirth, German pilot and aircraft designer (d. 1959) March Carel Willink Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Sir John McEwen Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester March 2 – Kurt Weill, German-American composer (d. 1950) March 3 Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, veteran Indian Independence activist (d. 1966)[26] Edna Best, British stage and film actress, appeared on early television in 1938 (d. 1974)[27] Ruby Dandridge, African-American film, radio actress (d. 1987) March 4 – Herbert Biberman, American screenwriter, film director (d. 1971) March 5 Lilli Jahn, German-Jewish doctor (d. 1944)[28] Johanna Langefeld, German guard, supervisor of three Nazi concentration camps (d. 1974) March 7 Lorimer Dods, Australian medical pioneer (d. 1981) Leslie Hutchinson, Grenada-born cabaret singer (d. 1969) Fritz London, German-Jewish physicist (d. 1954) Carel Willink, Dutch painter (d. 1983) March 8 Howard Aiken, American computing pioneer (d. 1973) Henry Abel Smith, 17th Governor of Queensland (d. 1993) March 9 – Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, Italian prince (d. 1948) March 10 – Violet Brown, Jamaican supercentenarian, oldest Jamaican ever (d. 2017)[29] March 11 Hanna Bergas, German teacher who helped rescue Jewish children during WWII (d. 1987) Alfredo Dinale, Italian Olympic cyclist (d. 1976) March 12 Rinus van den Berge, Dutch athlete (d. 1972) Sylvi Kekkonen, Finnish writer and wife of President of Finland Urho Kekkonen (d. 1974)[30] Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, 19th President of Colombia (d. 1975) March 13 Queen Sālote Tupou III of Tonga, (d. 1965)[31] Andrée Bosquet, Belgian painter (d. 1980)[32] Giorgos Seferis, Greek poet, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 1971) March 16 – Mencha Karnicheva, Macedonian revolutionary, assassin (d. 1964)[33] March 17 – Manuel Plaza, Chilean athlete (d. 1969) March 18 – Hanne Sobek, German footballer (d. 1989) March 19 Carmen Carbonell, Spanish stage, film actress (d. 1988)[34] Frédéric Joliot-Curie, French physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 1958)[35] March 20 – Amelia Chopitea Villa, Bolivia's first female physician (d. 1942)[36] March 23 – Erich Fromm, German-born psychologist, philosopher who lived in Cuernavaca, Mexico (d. 1980)[37] March 26 – Angela Maria Autsch, German nun, died in Auschwitz helping Jewish prisoners (d. 1941)[38] March 29 Sir John McEwen, 18th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1980)[39] Oscar Elton Sette, American fisheries scientist (d. 1972) March 30 – Santos Urdinarán, Uruguayan footballer (d. 1979) March 31 – Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (d. 1974) April Spencer Tracy Wolfgang Pauli Charles Francis Richter April 1 – Stefanie Clausen, Danish Olympic diver (d. 1981)[40] April 3 Camille Chamoun, 7th president of Lebanon (d. 1987) Albert Ingham, English mathematician (d. 1967) Albert Walsh, Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1958) April 5 Josefina Passadori, Argentinian writer and poet (d. 1987) Spencer Tracy, American actor (d. 1967) April 8 – Marie Byles, Australian solicitor (d. 1979)[41] April 10 Arnold Orville Beckman, American chemist and investor (d. 2004) Jean Duvieusart, Belgian politician (d. 1977) April 11 – Sándor Márai, Hungarian writer and journalist (d. 1989) April 13 – Sorcha Boru, American potter, ceramic sculptor (d. 2006) April 14 – Salvatore Baccaloni, Italian operatic bass, buffo artist, and actor. (d. 1969) April 16 – Polly Adler, Russian-American author, madam (d. 1962)[42] April 18 – Bertha Isaacs, Bahamian teacher, tennis player, politician and women's rights activist (d. 1997)[43] April 19 Iracema de Alencar, Brazilian film actress (d. 1978) Rhea Silberta, Yiddish songwriter, singing teacher (d. 1959) April 20 – Fred Raymond, Austrian composer (d. 1954) April 21 – Hans Fritzsche, German Nazi official (d. 1953) April 22 – Nellie Beer, British politician, Lord Mayor of Manchester (1966–67) (d. 1988)[44] April 24 – Elizabeth Goudge, English writer (d. 1984)[45][46] April 25 – Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958) April 26 Roberto Arlt, Argentine writer (d. 1942) Eva Aschoff, German bookbinder, calligrapher (d. 1969)[47] Charles Francis Richter, American geophysicist, inventor (d. 1985) April 27 – August Koern, Estonian statesman, diplomat (d. 1989) April 28 Alice Berry, Australian activist (d. 1978)[48] Maurice Thorez, French Communist leader (d. 1964) April 29 Concha de Albornoz, Spanish feminist, intellectual, exiled during the Spanish Civil War (d. 1972) Amelia Best, Australian politician, one of the first women elected to the Tasmanian House of Assembly (d. 1979)[49] April 30 David Manners, Canadian-American actor (d. 1998) Cecily Lefort, English World War II heroine, spy for the SOE (d. 1945)[50][self-published source?] May Cai Chang Juan Arvizu Lucile Godbold May 1 – Ignazio Silone, Italian author (d. 1978) May 2 – A. W. Lawrence, British leading authority on classical sculpture and architecture (d. 1991) May 5 Helen Redfield, American geneticist (d. 1988)[51] Harold Tamblyn-Watts, British cartoonist (d. 1999) May 6 – Zheng Ji, Chinese nutritionist, biochemist (d. 2010) May 9 – Maria Malicka, Polish stage, film actress (d. 1992)[52] May 10 Beryl May Dent, English mathematical physicist (d. 1977)[53] Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, British-American astronomer, astrophysicist (d. 1979)[54] May 11 – Thomas H. Robbins Jr., American admiral (d. 1972) May 12 – Helene Weigel, Austrian actress (d. 1971)[55] May 13 – Karl Wolff, German SS functionary and war criminal (d. 1984) May 14 – Cai Chang, Chinese politician, women's rights activist (d. 1990)[56] May 15 – Ida Rhodes, American mathematician, pioneer in computer programming (d. 1986)[57] May 22 Juan Arvizu, Mexican operatic tenor and bolero vocalist (d. 1985) Vina Bovy, Belgian operatic soprano (d. 1983) May 23 – Hans Frank, German Nazi official (executed 1946) May 24 – Sonia Rosemary Keppel, British baroness, grandmother of Camilla, duch*ess of Cornwall (d. 1986)[citation needed] May 26 – Karin Juel, Swedish singer, actor and writer (d. 1976) May 27 Lotte Toberentz, German overseer of the Nazi Uckermark concentration camp (d. unknown)[58] Uładzimir Žyłka, Belarusian poet (d. 1933) May 28 – Tommy Ladnier, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1939) May 29 – David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, British politician, lawyer and judge (d. 1967) May 31 – Lucile Godbold, American Olympic athlete (d. 1981)[59] June Dennis Gabor Antoine de Saint-Exupéry June 3 Adelaide Ames, American astronomer (d. 1932)[60] Leo Picard, German-born Israeli geologist (d. 1997) June 4 – George Watkins, American baseball player (d. 1970) June 5 – Dennis Gabor, Hungarian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979) June 7 Glen Gray, American saxophonist (d. 1963) Frederick Terman, American electrical engineer, professor (d. 1982) June 8 – Lena Baker, African-American maid executed for capital murder, pardoned posthumously (d. 1945)[61] June 11 Leopoldo Marechal, Argentine writer (d. 1970) Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás, widow of Francisco Franco (d. 1988) June 14 Ruth Nanda Anshen, American writer, editor and philosopher (d. 2003)[62] June Walker, American stage, film actress (d. 1966) June 15 – Paul Mares, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1949) June 17 Martin Bormann, German Nazi official (d. 1945) Evelyn Irons, Scottish journalist, war correspondent (d. 2000)[63] June 18 – Vlasta Vraz, Czech-American relief worker, editor and fundraiser (d. 1989) June 21 – Choi Yong-kun, North Korean general, defense minister (d. 1976) June 22 Russell Vis, American wrestler (d. 1990) Henriette Alimen, French paleontologist, geologist (d. 1996)[64] June 23 – Blanche Noyes, American aviator, winner of the 1936 Bendix Trophy Race (d. 1981)[65] June 24 Juan Carlos Caballero Vega, Mexican revolutionary (d. 2010) Raphael Lemkin, Polish-born international lawyer (d. 1959) Bernard D. H. Tellegen, Dutch electrical engineer (d. 1990) June 25 Marta Abba, Italian actress (d. 1988)[66] Zinaida Aksentyeva, Ukrainian/Soviet astronomer (d. 1969) Georgia Hale, American silent film actress, real estate investor (d. 1985)[67] Philip D'Arcy Hart, British medical researcher, pioneer in tuberculosis treatment (d. 2006) Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, born Prince Louis of Battenberg, English naval officer and last Viceroy of India (assassinated) (d. 1979) June 26 John Benham, British long-distance runner (d. 1990) Jo Spier, Dutch artist and illustrator (d. 1978) June 27 – Dixie Brown, St Lucian-born British boxer (d. 1957) June 29 – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot, writer (d. 1944) June 30 – Alf Ihlen, Norwegian industrialist (d. 2006) July Alessandro Blasetti Bernardus Johannes Alfrink Eyvind Johnson Teresa Noce July 2 Joe Bennett, American baseball player (d. 1987) Sophie Harris, English costume, scenic designer for theatre and opera (d. 1966) July 3 Alessandro Blasetti, Italian film director and screenwriter (d. 1987) Gordon MacQuarrie, American author and journalist (d. 1956) July 4 Belinda Dann, indigenous Australian who was one of the Stolen Generation, reunited with family aged 107 (d. 2007)[68][69] Robert Desnos, French poet (d. 1945) Nellie Mae Rowe, African-American folk artist (d. 1982)[70] July 5 Richard K. Webel, American landscape architect (d. 2000) Reed Howes, American model (d. 1964) July 6 Frederica Sagor Maas, American playwright, essayist, and author (d. 2012)[71] Paul Métivier, Canadian World War I veteran (d. 2004) Elfriede Wever, German Olympic runner (d. 1941) July 7 Maria Bard, German stage, silent film actress (d. 1944) Frank W. Cyr, American educator, author (d. 1995) Earle E. Partridge, American general (d. 1990) July 9 – Joseph LaShelle, American cinematographer (d. 1989) July 10 – Evelyn Laye, English actress (d. 1996)[72] July 11 – Lily Eberwein, Sarawakian nationalist, women's rights activist (d. 1980)[73] July 13 Cornelius Keefe, American actor (d. 1972) George Lewis, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1968) July 15 – Enrique Cadícamo, Argentine tango lyricist, poet and novelist (d. 1999) July 16 – Mumon Yamada, Japanese Rinzai religious leader (d. 1988) July 20 – Hunter Lane, American baseball player (d. 1994) July 21 – Isadora Bennett, American theatre manager, modern dance publicity agent (d. 1980) July 23 Julia Davis Adams, American author, journalist (d. 1993)[74] John Babco*ck, last surviving Canadian World War I veteran (d. 2010) Inger Margrethe Boberg, Danish folklore researcher, writer (d. 1957)[75] Prince Kaya Tsunenori (d. 1978) July 26 – Sarah Kafrit, Israeli politician, teacher (d. 1983)[76] July 28 – Lady Dorothy Macmillan, spouse of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1966) July 29 Mary V. Austin, Australian community worker, political activist (d. 1986)[77] Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1976) Teresa Noce, Italian labor leader, activist, and journalist (d. 1980)[78] August Arturo Umberto Illia Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Cecil Howard Green Hans Adolf Krebs August 3 – Ernie Pyle, American journalist (d. 1945) August 4 Arturo Umberto Illia, 34th President of Argentina (d. 1983) Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, queen consort of George VI (d. 2002)[79] Nabi Tajima, Japanese supercentenarian, last surviving person born in the 19th century[80] (d. 2018) August 6 Cecil Howard Green, British-born geophysicist, businessman (d. 2003) Grigori Shtern, Soviet general (d. 1941) August 8 – Alexis Minotis, Greek actor, stage director (d. 1990) August 9 – Charles Farrell, American actor (d. 1990) August 10 – Arthur Espie Porritt, New Zealand politician, athlete (d. 1994) August 11 Alexander Mosolov, Russian composer (d. 1973) Charley Paddock, American sprinter (d. 1943) Philip Phillips, American archaeologist (d. 1994) August 14 Margret Boveri, German journalist, recipient of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (d. 1975)[81] Benita von Falkenhayn, German baroness, spy for the Second Polish Republic pre-WWII (d. 1935) August 15 – Estelle Brody, American silent film actress (d. 1995)[82] August 16 – Ida Browne, Australian geologist, palaeontologist (d. 1976)[83] August 17 Mary Paik Lee, Korean-American writer (d. 1995)[84] Vivienne de Watteville, British travel writer and adventurer (d. 1957)[85] August 18 Glenn Albert Black, American archaeologist (d. 1964) Ruth Norman, American religious leader (d. 1993)[86] August 19 Colleen Moore, American actress (d. 1988)[87] Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher (d. 1976) Dorothy Burr Thompson, American archaeologist, art historian (d. 2001)[88] August 22 Lisy Fischer, Swiss-born pianist, child prodigy (d. 1999)[89] Sergey Ozhegov, Russian lexicographer (d. 1964) August 23 Frances Adaskin, Canadian pianist (d. 2001)[90] Ernst Krenek, Austrian-American composer (d. 1991) August 25 Isobel Hogg Kerr Beattie, Scottish architect (d. 1970)[91] Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, German physician, biochemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1981) August 26 Margaret Utinsky, American nurse, recipient of the Medal of Freedom (d. 1970)[92] Hellmuth Walter, German engineer, inventor (d. 1980) September Urho Kekkonen Miguel Alemán Valdés September 3 – Urho Kekkonen, 8th President of Finland (d. 1986) September 5 – Grace Eldering, American public health scientist, co-developed vaccine for whooping cough (d. 1988)[93] September 6 – W. A. C. Bennett, Canadian politician (d. 1979) September 8 – Tilly Devine, English-Australian organised crime boss (d. 1970)[94] September 17 J. Willard Marriott, American entrepreneur and founder of Marriott International (d. 1985) Lena Frances Edwards, African-American physician, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (d. 1986)[95] Martha Ostenso, Canadian screenwriter, novelist (d. 1963)[96] Hedwig Ross, New Zealand-born educator, political activist and founding member of the Communist Party of New Zealand (d. 1971)[97] September 18 Thomas Darden, American rear admiral, 37th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1961) Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, 1st prime minister of Mauritius (d. 1985) September 20 – Uuno Klami, Finnish composer (d. 1961) September 22 – Paul Hugh Emmett, American chemical engineer (d. 1985) September 23 – Louise Nevelson, Ukrainian-born American sculptor (d. 1988) September 26 – Suzanne Belperron, French jewellery designer (d. 1983)[98] September 27 – Miguel Alemán Valdés, 46th President of Mexico, 1946-1952 (d. 1983)[99] October Bing Xin Helen Hayes Jean Arthur Ismail al-Azhari Srinagarindra Douglas Jardine Ragnar Granit October 1 – Tom Goddard, English cricketer (d. 1966) October 2 – Olive Ann Alcorn, American dancer, model, and silent film actress (d. 1975)[100] October 5 Bing Xin, Chinese author, poet, known for her contributions to children's literature (d. 1999)[101] Margherita Bontade, Italian politician (d. 1992)[102] October 6 Vivion Brewer, American activist, desegregationist (d. 1991)[103] Stan Nichols, English cricketer (d. 1961) October 7 – Heinrich Himmler, German Nazi official, SS head (d. 1945) October 10 – Helen Hayes, American actress (d. 1993)[104] October 11 - Boris Yefimov, Soviet political cartoonist (d. 2008) October 16 – Edward Ardizzone, English painter, printmaker and author (d. 1979) October 17 – Jean Arthur, American actress (d. 1991)[105] October 18 Sarah Bavly, Dutch-Israeli nutritionist, author and educator (d. 1993)[106] Evelyn Berckman, American author, known for her detective and Gothic horror novels (d. 1978)[107][108] October 19 Erna Berger, German coloratura lyric soprano (d. 1990) Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991) October 20 – Ismail al-Azhari, 2nd Prime Minister of Sudan, 3rd President of Sudan (d. 1969) October 21 Andrée Boisson, French Olympic fencer (d. 1973) Princess Mother Srinagarindra of Thailand (d. 1995) October 23 – Douglas Jardine, British cricketeer (d. 1958) October 25 – Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian suffragist and women's rights activist (d. 1978) October 26 Ibrahim Abboud, 4th prime minister, 1st president of Sudan (d. 1983) Karin Boye, Swedish poet, novelist, known for her dystopian sci-fi novel Kallocain (d. 1941)[109] October 30 Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1991) Agustín Lara, Mexican composer and interpreter of songs and boleros (d. 1970)[110] October 31 – Asbjørg Borgfelt, Norwegian sculptor (d. 1976) November Margaret Mitchell Aaron Copland Eliška Junková Håkan Malmrot November 2 – Carola Neher, German actress and singer (d. 1942) November 3 - Adolf Dassler, Cobbler, entrepreneur and inventor who founded Adidas (d. 1978) November 4 – Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Romanian communist activist, sociologist (d. 1954) November 5 Martin Dies Jr., American politician (d. 1972) Natalie Schafer, American actress (d. 1991) Ethelwynn Trewavas, British ichthyologist, over a dozen fish species named in her honor (d. 1993)[111] November 6 Ida Lou Anderson, American orator, professor and radio broadcasting pioneer (d. 1941)[112] Hugh Prosser, American actor (d. 1952) November 8 – Margaret Mitchell, American writer (Gone With The Wind) (d. 1949)[113] November 10 – Rudolf Vogel, German film and television actor (d. 1967) November 11 Maria Babanova, Russian stage, film actress (d. 1983) Frederick Lawton, 9th Director of the Office of Management and Budget (d. 1975) November 13 David Marshall Williams, American inventor (d. 1975) Samuel King Allison, American physicist (d. 1965) November 14 – Aaron Copland, American composer (d. 1990) November 16 Eliška Junková, Czechoslovakian automobile racer (d. 1994)[114] Nikolai Pogodin, Soviet playwright (d. 1962) November 19 – Anna Seghers, German writer (d. 1983)[115] November 20 Florieda Batson, American hurdler, captain of the United States team at the 1922 Women's Olympics (d. 1996) Helen Bradley, English painter (d. 1979)[116] November 21 – Bettina Warburg, German-American psychiatrist, professor (d. 1990) November 22 – Tom Macdonald, Welsh journalist, novelist (d. 1980) November 25 – Rudolf Höß, German Nazi official (d. 1947) November 26 – Anna Maurizio, Swiss biologist, known for her study of bees (d. 1993)[117] November 27 – Jovette Bernier, Canadian journalist, author, and radio show host (d. 1981)[118] November 28 – Mary Bothwell, Canadian classical vocalist, painter (d. 1985)[119] November 29 Mildred Gillars, American broadcaster (Axis Sally), employed by Nazi Germany to disseminate propaganda during WWII (d. 1988)[120] Håkan Malmrot, Swedish swimmer (d. 1987) November 30 – Luigi Stipa, Italian aeronautical, hydraulic, and civil engineer and aircraft designer (d. 1992) December Agnes Moorehead December 2 Elisa Godínez Gómez de Batista, First Lady of Cuba (1940-1944) (d. 1993) Herta Hammerbacher, German landscape architect, professor (d. 1985)[121] December 3 Karna Maria Birmingham, Australian artist, illustrator and print maker (d. 1987)[122] Ulrich Inderbinen, Swiss mountain guide (d. 2004) Richard Kuhn, Austrian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)[123] December 6 – Agnes Moorehead, American actress, best known for her role in Bewitched (d. 1974)[124] December 7 Kateryna Vasylivna Bilokur, Ukrainian folk artist (d. 1961)[125] Christian Matras, Faroese linguist, poet (d. 1988) December 10 – Dominic Costa, Australian politician (d. 1976) December 11 – Hermína Týrlová, Czechoslovakian animator, screenwriter, and film director (d. 1993)[126] December 12 – Sammy Davis Sr., American dancer (d. 1988) December 16 – Rudolf Diels, German Nazi civil servant, Gestapo chief (d. 1957) December 17 Mary Cartwright, British mathematician, one of the first people to analyze a dynamical system with chaos (d. 1998)[127] Katina Paxinou, Greek actress (d. 1973)[128] December 19 – Margaret Brundage, American illustrator, known for illustrating the pulp magazine Weird Tales (d. 1976)[129] December 20 Lissy Arna, German film actress (d. 1964) Marinus van der Goes van Naters, Dutch politician (d. 2005) December 22 Alan Bush, British composer, pianist and conductor (d. 1995) Ofelia Uribe de Acosta, Colombian author, editor, and suffragist (d. 1988)[130] December 23 Merle Barwis, American-Canadian supercentenarian (d. 2014)[80] Marie Bell, French actress, stage director (d. 1985) José de León Toral, assassin of Mexican President Álvaro Obregón (d. 1929) December 24 Joey Smallwood, first Premier of Newfoundland & Labrador (d. 1991) Hussein Al Oweini, 18th prime minister of Lebanon (d. 1971) Hawayo Takata, Japanese-American teacher, master practitioner of Reiki (d. 1980) December 25 – Antoni Zygmund, Polish mathematician (d. 1992) December 26 – Evelyn Bark, leading member of the British Red Cross, first female recipient of the CMG (d. 1993)[131] Date unknown Virginia M. Alexander Robina Addis, early British professional psychiatric social worker (d. 1986)[132] Margaret Altmann, German-American biologist, specialist in animal husbandry and psychobiology (d. 1984)[133] Juanita Ángeles, Filipina silent film actress (d. unknown) Hattie Moseley Austin, African-American entrepreneur, restaurateur (d. 1998)[134] Louella Ballerino, American fashion designer, known for her work in sportswear (d. 1978)[135] Natalya Bilikhodze, Russian Romanov impostor falsely claiming to be Grand duch*ess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 2000)[136] Ruth Bonner, Soviet Communist activist, sentenced to labor camp during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge (d. 1987)[137][138] Anna Borkowska (Sister Bertranda), Polish nun, prioress who hid 17 Jews in her monastery during WWII (d. 1988) Grace Hartman, Canadian social activist, politician, and first female mayor of Sudbury, Ontario (d. 1998)[139] Rubén Jaramillo, Mexican peasant leader (d. 1962)[140] Daudo Okelo, Ugandan Roman Catholic martyr and saint (b. ca. 1900; d. 1918) Bella Reay, English footballer (d. unknown) Virginia Frances Sterrett, American artist, illustrator (d. 1931)[141] Yung Fung-shee, Hong Kong philanthropist (d. 1972) Deaths January–June John Ruskin Gottlieb Daimler Mary Kingsley Princess Josephine of Baden January 5 – William A. Hammond, American military physician, neurologist, and 11th Surgeon General of the United States Army (1862–1864) (b. 1828) January 11 – James Martineau, English religious philosopher (b. 1805)[142] January 16 – S. M. I. Henry, American evangelist (b. 1839) January 20 – John Ruskin, English writer, artist, and social critic (b. 1819) January 31 – John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, Scottish nobleman, boxer (b. 1844) February 18 – Clinton L. Merriam, American politician (b. 1824) February 23 – William Butterfield, British architect (b. 1814) March 6 Carl Bechstein, German piano maker (b. 1826)[143] Gottlieb Daimler, German inventor, automotive pioneer (b. 1834) March 7 – Rachel Lloyd, American chemist (b. 1839) March 10 – Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann, Danish composer (b. 1805) March 18 – Hjalmar Kiærskou, Danish botanist (b. 1835) March 28 – Piet Joubert, Boer politician, military commander (b. 1834) March 29 – Cyrus K. Holliday, cofounder of Topeka, Kansas, 1st president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (b. 1826) April 2 – Gustaf Åkerhielm, 6th prime minister of Sweden (b. 1833) April 5 Joseph Bertrand, French mathematician (b. 1822) Maria Louise Eve, American author (b. 1848) Osman Nuri Pasha, Ottoman military leader (b. 1832) April 7 – Frederic Edwin Church, American landscape painter (b. 1826) April 12 – James Richard co*cke, American physician, homeopath, and pioneer hypnotherapist (b. 1863) April 17 – George Curry, Wild West robber (Wild Bunch) (shot) (b. 1871) April 19 – James Dawson, Australian activist (b. 1806) April 21 – Vikramatji Khimojiraj, Indian ruler (b. 1819) April 22 – Amédée-François Lamy, French soldier (b. 1858) (killed in battle) April 24 – George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, British politician (b. 1823) April 30 – Casey Jones, American railway engineer (b. 1863) May 1 – Mihály Munkácsy, Hungarian painter (b. 1844) May 2 – Seweryn Morawski, Roman Catholic prelate (b. 1819) May 9 – Carit Etlar (Carl Brosbøll), Danish author (b. 1816) May 18 – Félix Ravaisson-Mollien, French philosopher (b. 1813) May 28 – Sir George Grove, English music writer (b. 1820) June 2 – Samori Ture, West African empire-builder (b. 1830) June 3 – Mary Kingsley, English explorer, writer (b. 1862)[144] June 5 – Stephen Crane, American author (b. 1871) June 11 – Belle Boyd, American Confederate spy, actress (b. 1843) June 19 – Princess Josephine of Baden (b. 1813) July–December King Umberto I Kuroda Kiyotaka Friedrich Nietzsche Sir Arthur Sullivan Oscar Wilde July 5 – Henry Barnard, American educationalist (b. 1811) July 8 – Henry D. Cogswell, American philanthropist (b. 1820) July 9 – Gregorio Grassi, Italian Franciscan friar, Roman Catholic martyr and saint (b. 1833) July 26 – Nicolae Crețulescu, 2-time prime minister of Romania (b. 1812) July 29 – King Umberto I of Italy (assassinated) (b. 1844) July 30 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Queen Victoria (b. 1844)[145] August 1 – Rafael Molina Sanchez, Spanish bullfighter (b. 1841) August 4 – Étienne Lenoir, Belgian engineer (b. 1822) August 7 – Wilhelm Liebknecht, German Social Democratic politician (b. 1826)[146] August 8 Emil Škoda, Czech engineer and industrialist (b. 1839) József Szlávy, 6th prime minister of Hungary (b. 1818) August 10 – Charles Russell, Baron Russell of Killowen, Lord Chief Justice of England (b. 1832) August 12 – Wilhelm Steinitz, Austrian-born chess player, first undisputed World Champion (b. 1836) August 13 – Vladimir Solovyov, Russian philosopher and poet (b. 1853) August 16 – José Maria de Eça de Queirós, Portuguese writer (b. 1845) August 23 – Kuroda Kiyotaka, Japanese politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1840) August 25 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, writer (b. 1844) September 5 – Arthur Sewall, American politician, industrialist (b. 1835) September 19 – Belle Archer, American actress (b. 1859) September 23 William Marsh Rice, American philanthropist, university founder (b. 1816) Arsenio Martínez-Campos, Spanish general, revolutionary, and Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1831) September 29 – Samuel Fenton Cary, American politician (b. 1814) October 15 – Zdeněk Fibich, Czech composer (b. 1850) October 19 – Sir Roderick Cameron, Canadian shipping magnate (b. 1825) October 22 – John Sherman, American politician (b.1823) October 28 – Max Müller, German philologist, Orientalist (b. 1823) November 22 – Sir Arthur Sullivan, English composer (b. 1842) November 26 – Méry Laurent, French artist's muse, model (b. 1849) November 30 – Oscar Wilde, Irish writer (b. 1854)[147] December 4 – Aquileo Parra, 11th President of Colombia (b. 1825) December 14 – Paddy Ryan, Irish-American boxer, former world's heavyweight champion (b. 1851) December 21 – Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, Prussian field marshal (b. 1810) World population World population: 1,640,000,000 Africa: 133,000,000 Asia: 947,000,000 Japan: c. 45,000,000 Europe: 408,000,000 Latin America: 74,000,000 Northern America: 82,000,000 Oceania: 6,000,000 References Mill, Hugh Robert (1905). 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Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 980th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1980s decade. Events January Main article: January 1980 January 4 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter proclaims a grain embargo against the USSR with the support of the European Commission.[1] January 6 – Global Positioning System time epoch begins at 00:00 UTC. January 9 – In Saudi Arabia, 63 Islamist insurgents are beheaded for their part in the siege of the Great Mosque in Mecca in November 1979.[2] January 14 – Indira Gandhi returns to power as Prime Minister of India.[3] January 20 – At least 200 people are killed when the Corralejas Bullring collapses at Sincelejo, Colombia.[4] January 21 – The London Gold Fixing hits its highest price ever of $843 per troy ounce[5] ($2,249.50 in 2020 when adjusted for inflation). January 22 – Andrei Sakharov, Soviet scientist and human rights activist, is arrested in Moscow.[6] January 26 – Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations.[7] January 27 – Canadian Caper: Six United States diplomats, posing as Canadians, manage to escape from Tehran, Iran, as they board a flight to Zürich, Switzerland, on Swissair. January 31 – Burning of the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala: The Spanish Embassy in Guatemala is invaded and set on fire, killing 36 people. In the United States, it is dubbed "Spain's own Tehran".[8] February Main article: February 1980 February 2 – Abscam: FBI personnel target members of the Congress of the United States in a sting operation.[9] February 2 – 3 – The New Mexico State Penitentiary riot takes place; 33 inmates are killed and more than 100 inmates injured. February 4 – Abolhassan Banisadr is sworn in as the first President of Iran after winning the January 25 presidential election. February 13 – The 1980 Winter Olympics open in Lake Placid, New York.[10] February 15 – In Vanuatu, followers of John Frum's cargo cult on the island of Tanna declare secession as the nation of Tafea. February 16 – A total solar eclipse is seen in North Africa and West Asia. It was the 50th solar eclipse of Solar Saros 130. February 23 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini states that Iran's parliament will decide the fate of the American embassy hostages. February 25 – A coup in Suriname ousts the government of Henck Arron; leaders Dési Bouterse and Roy Horb replace it with a National Military Council.[11] February 27 – M-19 guerrillas begin the Dominican embassy siege in Colombia, holding 60 people hostage, including 14 ambassadors.[12] March Main article: March 1980 March 1 The Commonwealth Trade Union Council is established. The Voyager 1 probe confirms the existence of Janus, a moon of Saturn. March 3 - Pierre Trudeau returns to office as Prime Minister of Canada. March 4 – Robert Mugabe is elected Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.[13] March 8 – The Soviet Union's first rock music festival starts. March 14 – LOT Polish Airlines Flight 007 crashes during an emergency landing near Warsaw, Poland, killing a 14-man American boxing team and 73 others.[14] March 18 – Fifty people are killed at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia, when a Vostok-2M rocket explodes on its launch pad during a fueling operation. March 19 – 20 – The MV Mi Amigo, the ship housing pirate radio station Radio Caroline, sinks off the English coast (the station returns aboard a new ship in 1983). March 21 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter announces that the United States will boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[15] March 26 – A mine lift cage at the Vaal Reefs gold mine in South Africa falls 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi), killing 23 workers.[16] March 27 – The Norwegian oil platform Alexander L. Kielland collapses in the North Sea, killing 123 of its crew of 212.[17] March 28 – The Talpiot Tomb is discovered by construction workers in Jerusalem.[18] April Main article: April 1980 April 1 – The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) is formed in Lusaka, Zambia. April 2 – The St Pauls riot breaks out in Bristol. April 7 – The United States severs diplomatic relations with Iran and imposes economic sanctions, following the taking of American hostages on November 4, 1979. April 10 – In Lisbon, Portugal, the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom agree to reopen the border between Gibraltar and Spain in 1985, closed since 1969. April 12 1980 Liberian coup d'état: Samuel K. Doe overthrows the government of Liberia in a violent coup d'état, assassinating President William Tolbert and 26 other people and ending over 130 years of democratic presidential succession in that country. Terry Fox begins his Marathon of Hope, a plan to run across Canada to raise money for cancer research, setting off from St. Johns, Newfoundland and running westward. April 14 – Iron Maiden's debut self-titled album Iron Maiden is released in the U.K. April 18 – Zimbabwe gains de jure independence from the United Kingdom with Robert Mugabe as its first Prime Minister. April 24 – 25 – Operation Eagle Claw, a commando mission in Iran to rescue American embassy hostages, is aborted after mechanical problems ground the rescue helicopters. Eight United States troops are killed in a mid-air collision during the failed operation.[19] April 25 – Dan-Air Flight 1008 crashes in Tenerife, killing all 146 occupants; at the time it was the worst air disaster involving a British-registered aircraft in terms of loss of life.[20] April 26 – Louise and Charmian Faulkner disappear from outside their flat in St Kilda, Victoria, Australia. April 27 – The Dominican embassy siege in Colombia ends with all remaining hostages released after the guerrillas are allowed to escape to Cuba. April 30 Iranian Embassy siege: Six Iranian-born terrorists take over the Iranian embassy in London, England. SAS retakes the Embassy on May 5; one terrorist survives. Queen Juliana of the Netherlands abdicates and her daughter Beatrix accedes to the throne.[21] May Main article: May 1980 May 1 – "About that Urban Renaissance...", an article by journalist Dan Rottenberg in Chicago, contains the first recorded use of the word "yuppie".[22] May 2 – Referendum on system of government held in Nepal. May 4 – Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito dies. The largest state funeral in history is organized, with state delegations from 128 different countries out of 154 UN members at the time. May 7 – Paul Geidel, convicted of second-degree murder in 1911, is released from prison in Beacon, New York, after 68 years and 245 days (the longest-ever time served by an inmate). May 8 – Global eradication of smallpox certified by the World Health Organization. May 9 In Florida, United States, the Liberian freighter Summit Venture hits the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay. A 1,400 foot (430 m) section of the bridge collapses and 35 people (most in a bus) are killed.[23] James Alexander George Smith "Jags" McCartney the Turks and Caicos Islands' first chief minister, is killed in a plane crash over New Jersey. May 14 – The Sumpul River massacre occurs in Chalatenango, El Salvador. May 17 – Internal conflict in Peru: On the eve of presidential elections, Maoist guerrilla group Shining Path attacks a polling location in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. May 18 – The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington (state) kills 57 and causes US$3 billion in damage. May 18 – 27 – Gwangju Uprising: Students in Gwangju, South Korea, begin demonstrations, calling for democratic reforms. May 20 – 1980 Quebec referendum: Voters in Quebec reject by a vote of 60%, a proposal to seek independence from Canada. May 22 – Pac-Man, the highest-earning arcade game of all time, is released in Japan. May 24 The International Court of Justice calls for the release of U.S. Embassy hostages in Tehran. The New York Islanders win their first Stanley Cup, on a goal by Bobby Nystrom in Game 6 overtime of the 1980 Stanley Cup Finals over the Philadelphia Flyers. May 25 – Indianapolis 500: Johnny Rutherford wins for a third time in car owner Jim Hall's revolutionary ground effect Chaparral car; the victory is Hall's second as an owner. May 26 John Frum supporters in Vanuatu storm government offices on the island of Tanna. Vanuatu government troops land the next day and drive them away. In South Korea, military government forces and pro-democracy protesters clash; 2,000 protesters die. May 28 – A fiery bus crash near the small village of Webb, Saskatchewan, Canada, claims 22 lives.[24] June Main article: June 1980 June 1 – The first 24-hour news channel, Cable News Network (CNN) is launched. June 3 – 1980 Grand Island tornado outbreak: A series of deadly tornadoes strikes Grand Island, Nebraska, causing over $300m in damage, killing five people and injuring over 250. June 10 – Apartheid: The African National Congress in South Africa publishes a statement by their imprisoned leader Nelson Mandela.[25] June 23 – September 6 – The 1980 United States heat wave claims 1,700 lives. June 23 Sanjay Gandhi, the politically influential son of prime minister Indira Gandhi, is killed in a plane crash.[26] Tim Berners-Lee begins work on ENQUIRE,[27] the system that will eventually lead to the creation of the World Wide Web in autumn 1990. June 25 – A Muslim Brotherhood assassination attempt against Syrian president Hafez al-Assad fails. Assad retaliates by sending the army against them. June 27 Itavia Flight 870 crashes into the sea near Ustica island, Italy, killing all 81 people on board. The cause of the accident remains unclear. U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs Proclamation 4771, requiring 18- to 25-year-old males to register for a peacetime military draft, in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. June 29 – Vigdís Finnbogadóttir is elected President of Iceland, making her the first woman democratically elected as head of state. July Main article: July 1980 July 10: Fire at Alexandra Palace July 8 – A wave of strikes begins in Lublin, Poland. July 9 – Pope John Paul II visits Brazil; seven people are crushed to death in a crowd waiting to see him at afternoon Mass at the stadium in Fortaleza. July 16 – Former California Governor and actor Ronald Reagan is nominated for U.S. president, at the 1980 Republican National Convention in Detroit. Influenced by the Religious Right, the convention also drops its long-standing support for the Equal Rights Amendment, dismaying moderate Republicans. July 19 – Former Turkish Prime Minister Nihat Erim is killed by two gunmen in Istanbul, Turkey. July 19 – August 3 – The 1980 Summer Olympics are held in Moscow, Soviet Union. 82 countries boycott the Games, athletes from 16 of them participate under a neutral flag. July 25 – The album Back in Black is released by the Australian band AC/DC. July 27 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, deposed Shah of Iran, dies in Cairo. July 30 Vanuatu gains independence. Israel's Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law. August Main article: August 1980 August 1 – Vigdís Finnbogadóttir becomes the 4th President of Iceland, the world's first democratically directly elected female president.[28] August 2 – Strage di Bologna: A terrorist bombing at the Bologna Centrale railway station in Italy kills 85 people and wounds more than 200.[29] Moscow Olympic Games on August 2, 1980 August 4 – Hurricane Allen (category 5) pounds Haiti, where it kills more than 200 people.[30] August 7–31 – Lech Wałęsa leads the first of many strikes at the Gdańsk Shipyard in the Polish People's Republic. August 17 – In Australia, baby Azaria Chamberlain disappears from a campsite at Ayers Rock (Uluru), reportedly taken by a dingo. August 19 – In one of aviation's worst disasters, 301 people are killed when Saudia Flight 163 catches fire in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. August 31 – Victory of the strike in Gdańsk Shipyard, Poland. The Gdańsk Agreement is signed, opening a way to start the first free (i.e. not state-controlled) trade union in the communist bloc, "Solidarity" (Solidarność). September Main article: September 1980 September 1 – Terry Fox is forced to end his Marathon of Hope run outside of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, after finding out that the cancer has spread to his lungs. September 2 – Ford Europe launches the Escort MK3, a new front-wheel drive hatchback. September 3 – Zimbabwe breaks diplomatic and consular relations with South Africa, even though it maintains a commercial mission in Johannesburg. September 5 – The Gotthard Road Tunnel opens in Switzerland as the world's longest highway tunnel at 16.3 kilometres (10.1 mi), stretching from Göschenen to Airolo beneath the Gotthard Pass. September 12 – Kenan Evren stages a military coup in Turkey. It stops political gang violence, but begins stronger state violence leading to the execution of many young activists.[31] September 17 – After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established.[32] September 21 – Bülent Ulusu, ex admiral, forms the new government of Turkey (44th government, composed mostly of technocrats).[33] September 22 – The command council of Iraq orders its army to "deliver its fatal blow on Iranian military targets", initiating the Iran–Iraq War.[34] September 26 Oktoberfest bombing: 13 people are killed and 211 injured in a right-wing terror attack in Munich (West Germany).[35] The Mariel boatlift in Cuba officially ends.[36] September 30 – Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel and Xerox introduce the DIX standard for Ethernet, which is the first implementation outside of Xerox and the first to support 10 Mbit/s speeds.[37] October Main article: October 1980 October 5 The Elisabeth blast furnace is demolished at Bilston Steelworks, marking the end of iron and steel production in the Black Country region of the UK.[38] British Leyland launches its new Metro, a three-door entry-level hatchback which is designed as the eventual replacement for the Mini. It gives BL a long-awaited modern competitor for the likes of the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette. October 10 – The 7.1 Mw El Asnam earthquake shakes northern Algeria with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), killing 2,633–5,000 and injuring 8,369–9,000. October 14 The Staggers Rail Act is enacted, deregulating American railroads. The 6th Congress of the Workers' Party ended, having anointed North Korean President Kim Il-sung's son Kim Jong-il as his successor.[39][40] October 15 – James Callaghan announces his resignation as leader of the British Labour Party. October 18 – 1980 Australian federal election: Malcolm Fraser's Liberal/National Country Coalition Government is re-elected with a substantially reduced majority, defeating the Labor Party led by Bill Hayden. The Government also loses control of the Senate, with the Australian Democrats winning the balance of power. October 20 Greece rejoins the NATO military structure. In continuous production since 1962, the last MG MGB roadster rolls off the assembly line at the Abingdon-on-Thames (England) factory, ending production for the MG Cars marque. October 21 – In Major League Baseball, The Philadelphia Phillies of the National League defeat the Kansas City Royals of the American League, 4–1, in Game Six of the World Series to win the championship.[41] October 25 – Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague. October 27 – Six Provisional Irish Republican Army prisoners in Maze prison in Northern Ireland refuse food and demand status as political prisoners; the hunger strike lasts until December. October 30 – El Salvador and Honduras sign a peace treaty to put the border dispute fought over in 1969's Football War before the International Court of Justice. October 31 The Polish government recognizes Solidarity. Reza Pahlavi, eldest son of the Shah of Iran, proclaims himself the rightful successor to the Peaco*ck Throne. November Main article: November 1980 November 4 – 1980 United States presidential election: Republican challenger and former Governor Ronald Reagan of California defeats incumbent Democratic President Jimmy Carter and was elected the 40th President of the United States. November 10 – 12 – Voyager program: The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn, when it flies within 77,000 miles (124,000 km) of the planet's cloud-tops and sends the first high resolution images of the world back to scientists on Earth. November 20 – The Gang of Four trial begins in China.[42] November 21 A fire at the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip kills 85 people.[43] A record number of viewers on this date (for an entertainment program) tune into the U.S. television show Dallas to learn who shot lead character J. R. Ewing. The "Who shot J.R.?" event is an international obsession. November 23 – The 6.9 Mw Irpinia earthquake shakes southern Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). Officially, there were 2,483 people killed and 8,934 injured, though the deaths may have been as high as 4,900.[44] December Main article: December 1980 December 8: The former Beatles member and peace activist John Lennon is shot dead outside his home in New York. December 2 – A missionary (Jean Donovan) and three Roman Catholic nuns (Maura Clarke, Ita Ford, Dorothy Kazel), all Americans, are murdered by a military death squad in El Salvador while doing charity work during that country's civil war.[45] December 8 – Murder of John Lennon: Mark David Chapman is arrested following the murder of English musician John Lennon, formerly of the Beatles, outside his New York City apartment building, The Dakota.[46] December 14 – Four people are murdered and four others are injured by two armed robbers at Bob's Big Boy on La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles, in what is one of the city's most brutal crimes ever. December 15 – The Academia de la Llingua Asturiana (Academy of the Asturian language) is created. December 16 – During a summit on the island of Bali, OPEC decides to raise the price of petroleum by 10%. Date unknown The Right Livelihood Award is founded by Jakob von Uexkull. Hassan Fathy and Plenty International/Stephen Gaskin are its first winners. The World Hockey Association and NHL merge, adding teams in Hartford, Quebec City, Edmonton and Winnipeg to the league. Accompanying the newly added Edmonton Oilers as the first team in Alberta, the Atlanta Flames move to Calgary. World population World population 1980 1975 1985 Globe.svg World 4,434,682,000 4,068,109,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 366,573,000 4,830,979,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 396,297,000 Africa satellite orthographic.jpg Africa 469,618,000 408,160,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 61,458,000 541,814,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 72,196,000 Two-point-equidistant-asia.jpg Asia 2,632,335,000 2,397,512,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 234,823,000 2,887,552,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 255,217,000 Europe satellite orthographic.jpg Europe 692,431,000 675,542,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 16,889,000 706,009,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 13,578,000 Latin America terrain.jpg Latin America & Caribbean 361,401,000 321,906,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 39,495,000 401,469,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 40,068,000 Oceania (World-Factbook).jpg Oceania 22,828,000 21,564,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,264,000 24,678,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,850,000 Births Births January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December January Carlos Alvarado Quesada Lin-Manuel Miranda Zooey Deschanel Maksim Chmerkovskiy Estelle Jason Segel Xavi Marat Safin Nick Carter January 1 – Richie Faulkner, British rock guitarist[47] January 2 – Kemi Badenoch, British politician[48] January 3 – Bryan Clay, American decathlete[49] January 4 Chantal Baudaux, Venezuelan actress and model Greg Cipes, American voice, film and television actor January 5 – Li Ting, Chinese tennis player[50] January 7 – Hele Kõrve, Estonian actress and singer January 8 – Adam Goodes, Australian rules footballer January 9 – Sergio García, Spanish golfer January 10 – Sarah Shahi, American actress January 11 – Lovieanne Jung, American softball player January 12 – Amerie, American singer January 13 – Wolfgang Loitzl, Austrian ski jumper[51] January 14 Carlos Alvarado Quesada, Costa Rican politician, 48th President of Costa Rica[52] Monika Kuszyńska, Polish singer and songwriter January 16 Seydou Keita, Malian footballer[53] Lin-Manuel Miranda, Puerto Rican-American actor, composer and writer[54] Albert Pujols, Dominican Major League Baseball player[55] Michelle Wild, Hungarian actress January 17 Zooey Deschanel, American actress, singer and musician[56] Maksim Chmerkovskiy, Ukrainian-American dance champion, choreographer and instructor January 18 Estelle, British singer[57] Jason Segel, American actor and comedian January 19 Jenson Button, British racing driver[58] Cai Yun, Chinese badminton player[59] Luke Macfarlane, Canadian actor and singer Arvydas Macijauskas, Lithuanian basketball player January 20 Philippe Gagnon, Canadian Paralympic swimmer Kim Jeong-hoon, South Korean singer and actor Matthew Tuck, Welsh singer and guitarist January 21 Lee Kyung-won, South Korean badminton player Nana Mizuki, Japanese voice actress and singer January 22 Christopher Masterson, American actor and disc jockey Jonathan Woodgate, English football player and coach[60] January 24 – Suzy, Portuguese singer January 25 Christian Olsson, Swedish athlete[61] Xavi, Spanish footballer[62] Michelle McCool, American professional wrestler January 27 – Marat Safin, Russian tennis player[63] January 28 – Nick Carter, American pop singer (Backstreet Boys) January 29 Yael Bar Zohar, Israeli actress and model Ivan Klasnić, Croatian footballer[64] Jason James Richter, American actor January 30 – Lee Zeldin, American politician January 31 – Jurica Vranješ, Croatian footballer February Matthew Lawrence Christina Ricci Jason Ritter Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Chelsea Clinton February 2 Oleguer Presas, Spanish footballer[65] Nina Zilli, Italian singer-songwriter[66] February 6 Mamiko Noto, Japanese actress and singer[67] Ryan Parmeter, American professional wrestler February 8 – Yang Wei, Chinese gymnast February 9 – Angelos Charisteas, Greek footballer[68] February 10 César Izturis, Venezuelan Major League Baseball player Steve Tully, English footballer February 11 – Matthew Lawrence, American actor[69] February 12 Juan Carlos Ferrero, Spanish tennis player[70] Christina Ricci, American actress[71] Gucci Mane, American rapper[72] February 14 – Mindy Robinson, American actress and reality TV show personality[73] February 15 – Petr Elfimov, Belarusian singer February 17 – Jason Ritter, American actor and producer[74] February 18 – Regina Spektor, Russian-American singer-songwriter[75] February 19 Mike Miller, American basketball player Ma Lin, Chinese table-tennis player February 20 Imanol Harinordoquy, French rugby player Artur Boruc, Polish football (soccer) goalkeeper[76] February 21 Tiziano Ferro, Italian singer[77] Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, King of Bhutan[78] February 22 – Jeanette Biedermann, German singer and actress February 24 Emma Johnson, Australian swimmer Shinsuke Nakamura, Japanese professional wrestler February 26 – Júlio César da Silva e Souza, Brazilian footballer February 27 Chelsea Clinton, daughter of U.S. President Bill Clinton and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Don Diablo, Dutch DJ and producer February 28 Tayshaun Prince, American basketball player[79] Piotr Giza, Polish footballer March Rebel Wilson Laura Prepon Johan Olsson Ronaldinho March 1 – Shahid Afridi, Pakistani cricketer March 2 – Rebel Wilson, Australian actress[80] March 3 – Katherine Waterston, American actress[81] March 4 Rohan Bopanna, Indian tennis player[82] Omar Bravo, Mexican footballer March 5 – Jessica Boehrs, German singer and actress March 7 Fabiana Alvim, Brazilian volleyball player[83] Murat Boz, Turkish singer and actor Laura Prepon, American actress Mart Toome, Estonian actor March 10 – Chingy, American rapper, singer and actor March 11 – Gabriela Pichler, Swedish film director and screenwriter March 12 – Juliana Silveira, Brazilian actress March 13 Caron Butler, American basketball player Kira Miró, Spanish actress and TV presenter March 14 – Aaron Brown, English footballer March 18 Natalia Poklonskaya, Russian lawyer, politician and diplomat Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi, Pakistani tennis player[84] Alexei Yagudin, Russian figure skater March 19 – Johan Olsson, Swedish cross country skier March 20 – Hamada Helal, Egyptian singer March 21 Ronaldinho, Brazilian footballer Marit Bjørgen, Norwegian cross-country skier[citation needed] Narges Rashidi, Iranian born-German actress March 30 – Yalın, Turkish pop singer and songwriter March 31 Maaya Sakamoto, Japanese voice actress and singer[85] Chien-Ming Wang, Taiwanese Major League Baseball player April Randy Orton Kiril Petkov Waylon Taio Cruz Jordana Brewster Channing Tatum April – Akshata Murty, Indian heiress, businesswoman, fashion designer, and venture capitalist April 1 Randy Orton, American professional wrestler and actor Bijou Phillips, American actress and model April 3 – Suella Braverman, British politician April 4 – Björn Wirdheim, Swedish racing driver April 5 – Joris Mathijsen, Dutch footballer[86] April 9 – Jerko Leko, Croatian football player and coach[87] April 10 Charlie Hunnam, English actor Andy Ram, Israeli tennis player[88] April 12 – Brian McFadden, Irish pop singer April 15 – Willie Mason, New Zealand-Australian rugby league player April 16 Samir Javadzadeh, Azerbaijani singer Paul London, American professional wrestler April 17 Brenda Villa, American water polo player Kiril Petkov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria[89] Alaina Huffman, Canadian actress[90] Lee Hyun-il, South Korean badminton player April 18 – Laura Mennell, Canadian actress April 20 Vibeke Skofterud, Norwegian cross country skier (d. 2018) Jasmin Wagner, German singer Waylon, Dutch singer April 21 – Rebecca Zlotowski, French film director and screenwriter April 22 – Nicolas Douchez, French footballer April 23 Taio Cruz, British singer Małgorzata Socha, Polish actress Marjorie de Sousa, Venezuelan actress and model April 24 Austin Nichols, American actor Karen Asrian, Armenian chess Grandmaster (d. 2008) April 25 – Alejandro Valverde, Spanish cyclist[91] April 26 Jordana Brewster, American actress and model Marlon King, Jamaican footballer Channing Tatum, American actor, producer and dancer[92] April 27 – Zayed Khan, Indian actor April 28 – Josh Howard, American basketball player April 29 Kian Egan, Irish singer (Westlife) Emmad Irfani, Pakistani model and TV actor April 30 – Luis Scola, Argentine basketball player May Ellie Kemper Gotye Steven Gerrard May 1 – Ana Claudia Talancón, Mexican actress May 2 Tim Borowski, German footballer Ellie Kemper, American actress and comedian[93] May 5 Maia Hirasawa, Swedish pop singer Yossi Benayoun, Israeli footballer May 6 – Dimitris Diamantidis, Greek basketball player May 7 – Johan Kenkhuis, Dutch swimmer May 9 Grant Hackett, Australian swimmer Carolin Kebekus, German comedian and actress May 12 – Rishi Sunak, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom May 14 – Zdeněk Grygera, Czech footballer[94] May 17 – Alistair Overeem, Dutch mixed martial artist and kickboxer May 18 Michaël Llodra, French tennis player[95] Ali Zafar, Pakistani music composer, singer-songwriter, painter and actor[96] May 19 – Dean Heffernan, Australian footballer May 21 – Gotye, Belgian-Australian multi-instrumentalist and singer-songwriter May 22 Nazanin Boniadi, Iranian born-British actress[97] Evelin Võigemast, Estonian actress and singer May 23 – Theofanis Gekas, Greek footballer[98] May 24 – Cecilia Cheung, Hong Kong actress May 28 Mark Feehily, Irish singer Jørgen Strickert, Norwegian comedian May 29 Ilaria Bianco, Italian fencer[99] Nazanin Boniadi, Iranian born-British actress May 30 – Steven Gerrard, English footballer June Sarah Connor Venus Williams Minka Kelly June 1 – Damien Fahey, American MTV VJ, television host and drummer June 3 Amauri, Brazilian born-Italian footballer[100] Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar June 6 – Mmusi Maimane, South African politician June 8 – David Holoubek, Czech football manager June 10 Matuzalém, Brazilian footballer Wang Yuegu, Singaporean Olympic table tennis player June 13 Sarah Connor, German singer Florent Malouda, French footballer[101] Juan Carlos Navarro, Spanish basketball player June 16 Brad Gushue, Canadian curler Sibel Kekilli, German actress Joey Yung, Hong Kong singer June 17 – Venus Williams, American tennis player[102] June 21 Richard Jefferson, American basketball player[103] Branko Bošković, Montenegrin footballer June 22 – Ilya Bryzgalov, Russian ice hockey player June 23 Erick Elías, Mexican actor Ramnaresh Sarwan, West Indian cricketer Manus Boonjumnong, Thai boxer Melissa Rauch, American actress June 24 Minka Kelly, American actress Cicinho, Brazilian footballer June 25 – Philippe Lacheau, French actor, director and writer June 27 Alexander Peya, Austrian tennis player[104] Kevin Pietersen, South African-English cricketer June 29 – Katherine Jenkins, Welsh soprano June 30 Ryan ten Doeschate, Dutch cricketer Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht, Iranian footballer July Harbhajan Singh Jessica Simpson Gisele Bündchen Jacinda Ardern July 1 Nelson Cruz, Dominican baseball player Shon Seung-mo, South Korean badminton player July 3 Olivia Munn, American actress and model David Rozehnal, Czech footballer[105] Harbhajan Singh, Indian international cricketer July 5 Zayed Khan, Indian actor and producer Fabián Ríos, Colombian actor and model July 6 Pau Gasol, Spanish basketball player Eva Green, French actress and model Jesse Jane, American adult actress July 7 Gerti Bogdani, Albanian politician Marika Domińczyk, Polish American actress Michelle Kwan, American figure skater[106] July 8 – Robbie Keane, Irish footballer[107] July 10 Cláudia Leitte, Brazilian singer[108] Jessica Simpson, American singer July 11 – Mathias Boe, Danish badminton player July 12 Irina Embrich, Estonian fencer[109] Kristen Connolly, American actress July 13 Cory Mills, American politician and businessman[110] Pejman Nouri, Iranian football player July 15 JW-Jones, Canadian blues musician Julia Perez, Indonesian singer and actress (d. 2017) July 16 Svetlana Feofanova, Russian pole-vaulter Oliver Marach, Austrian tennis player[111] Adam Scott, Australian golfer July 17 Brett Goldstein, British actor, comedian and writer[112] Rashid Ramzi, Moroccan-Bahraini athlete July 18 Kristen Bell, American actress David Blu (born David Bluthenthal), American–Israeli basketball player[113] July 19 Xavier Malisse, Belgian tennis player[114] Mark Webber, American actor July 20 Gisele Bündchen, Brazilian supermodel Jin Goo, South Korean actor July 21 – CC Sabathia, American baseball player July 22 Scott Dixon, New Zealand racing driver Dirk Kuyt, Dutch footballer[115] Kate Ryan, Belgian singer-songwriter July 26 – Jacinda Ardern, 40th Prime Minister of New Zealand[116] July 27 – Nick Nemeth, American professional wrestler[117] July 29 – Fernando González, Chilean tennis player August Chris Pine Macaulay Culkin August 2 Nadia Bjorlin, American-Swedish actress Amanda Lind, Swedish politician August 3 Nadia Ali, Pakistani-American singer-songwriter Hannah Simone, British born-Canadian actress and model August 5 – Wayne Bridge, English footballer August 6 Will Pan, American-Taiwanese singer-songwriter and actor Roman Weidenfeller, German footballer[118] August 8 – Shayna Baszler, American professional wrestler and kickboxer[119] August 9 – Dominic Tabuna, Nauruan politician August 11 – Monika Pyrek, Polish pole vaulter August 16 Julien Absalon, French mountain biker Vanessa Carlton, American singer August 17 Dani Güiza, Spanish footballer[120] Lene Marlin, Norwegian singer and musician August 18 Esteban Cambiasso, Argentine footballer[121] Damion Stewart, Jamaican footballer August 21 – Paul Menard, American race car driver August 23 – Rex Grossman, American football player August 26 Macaulay Culkin, American actor[122] Chris Pine, American actor[123] August 29 William Levy, Cuban-American actor David West, American basketball player September Nigar Jamal Michelle Williams Yao Ming Martina Hingis September 1 – Lætitia Dosch, French actress September 3 Jennie Finch, American softball player Jason McCaslin, Canadian Guitarist Polina Smolova, Belarusian singer September 5 – Marianna Madia, Italian politician[124] September 6 Samuel Peter, Nigerian boxer and heavyweight champion Joseph Yobo, Nigerian footballer September 7 Nigar Jamal, Azerbaijani singer, Eurovision Song Contest 2011 winner Gabriel Milito, Argentine footballer September 9 Denise Quiñones, Puerto Rican actress, model and beauty queen who was crowned Miss Universe 2001. Michelle Williams, American actress September 10 – Mikey Way, American musician (My Chemical Romance)[125] September 11 – Mike Comrie, Canadian ice hockey player September 12 Roda Antar, Sierra Leonean born-Lebanese footballer[126] Yao Ming, Chinese basketball player Hiroyuki Sawano, Japanese composer September 13 – Ben Savage, American actor September 15 Jolin Tsai, Taiwanese singer Faiz Khaleed, Malaysian astronaut September 17 – Luis Horna, Peruvian tennis player September 19 – Tegan and Sara, Canadian twin sisters singer September 21 Kareena Kapoor, Indian actress Autumn Reeser, American actress September 24 Nataša Bekvalac, Serbian singer Sara McMann, American mixed martial artist[127] John Arne Riise, Norwegian footballer[128] Victoria Pendleton, English cyclist[129] September 25 T.I., African-American rap artist, film and music producer, actor and author Nikola Žigić, Serbian footballer[130] September 26 – Daniel and Henrik Sedin, Swedish ice hockey players September 28 – Elena Khrustaleva, Russian biathlete[131] September 29 – Zachary Levi, American actor and singer[132] September 30 Martina Hingis, Swiss tennis player[133] Guillermo Rigondeaux, Cuban boxer October Nick Cannon Sue Bird Kim Kardashian Monica October 4 Me'Lisa Barber, American athlete Tomáš Rosický, Czech footballer October 5 James Toseland, English motorcycle racer[134] Joakim Brodén, Swedish-Czech Singer October 8 Michael Mizanin, American professional wrestler Nick Cannon, American comedian, rapper, and television host October 9 – Henrik Zetterberg, Swedish Ice Hockey player[135] October 10 Sherine, Egyptian singer Lynn Hung, Hong Kong actress October 12 – Ledley King, English footballer October 13 Ashanti, American singer, songwriter, record producer, model, dancer, and actress[136] Scott Parker, English footballer October 14 – Ben Whishaw, English actor[137] October 15 – Tom Boonen, Belgian cyclist October 16 – Sue Bird, Israeli-American basketball player October 17 – Yekaterina Gamova, Russian volleyball player[138] October 18 – Reetinder Singh Sodhi, Indian cricket player October 19 – José Bautista, Dominican baseball player October 21 – Kim Kardashian, American socialite and television personality[139] October 24 Monica, American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman Casey Wilson, American actress and comedian[140] October 26 – Cristian Chivu, Romanian football player and coach[141] October 30 Sarah Carter, Canadian actress Eva Wahlström, Finnish boxer[142] October 31 – Kengo Nakamura, Japanese footballer[143] November Vanessa Lachey Ryan Gosling November 5 Luke Hemsworth, Australian actor[144] Christoph Metzelder, German footballer November 6 Pål Sverre Hagen, Norwegian actor[145] Anri Jokhadze, Georgian pop singer November 7 – Gervasio Deferr, Spanish gymnast November 8 – Luís Fabiano, Brazilian footballer[146] November 9 – Vanessa Lachey, American television personality, fashion model, and beauty queen[147] November 10 Calvin Chen, Taiwanese pop singer Maya Diab, Lebanese singer, actress and TV presenter November 11 – Nicole Malliotakis, American politician[148] November 12 – Ryan Gosling, Canadian actor and musician[149] November 13 – Stalin González, Venezuelan lawyer and politician[150] November 15 – Kevin Staut, French equestrian November 16 – Kayte Christensen, American basketball player November 18 – François Duval, Belgian rally driver November 21 Hiroyuki Tomita, Japanese gymnast Elaine Yiu, Hong Kong actress November 26 – Satoshi Ohno, Japanese singer November 28 Lisa Middelhauve, German singer (Xandria) Christian Poulsen, Danish footballer[151] November 29 Janina Gavankar, American actress and musician[152] Ilias Kasidiaris, Greek politician December Annalena Baerbock Christina Aguilera Jake Gyllenhaal December 1 – Yianna Terzi, Greek singer and songwriter December 3 Anna Chlumsky, American actress[153] Jenna Dewan, American actress and dancer[154] December 5 – Ibrahim Maalouf, Lebanese-born French trumpeter December 7 – John Terry, English footballer December 9 – Simon Helberg, American actor, comedian and musician December 10 – Sarah Chang, American violinist[155] December 13 – Bosco Wong, Hong Kong actor December 14 – Didier Zokora, Ivorian footballer[156] December 15 – Annalena Baerbock, German politician December 18 Christina Aguilera, American singer, songwriter, actress and television personality[157] Mark Essien, Nigerian entrepreneur, founder of December 19 – Jake Gyllenhaal, American actor[158] December 20 Ashley Cole, English footballer Martín Demichelis, Argentine footballer[159] December 21 – Stefan Liv, Swedish ice hockey player (d.2011) December 23 – Yadira Caraveo, American politician December 31 – Richie McCaw, New Zealand rugby player[160] Deaths Deaths January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December January Frank Wykoff Teresa Noce Jimmy Durante January 1 Adolph Deutsch, American composer (b. 1897) Pietro Nenni, Italian politician (b. 1891)[161] Frank Wykoff, American Olympic athlete (b. 1909)[162] January 2 – Alessandro Bruschetti, Italian artist (b. 1910) January 3 – Joy Adamson, Austrian-born conservationist and author (b. 1910; murdered)[163] January 6 – Piersanti Mattarella, President of Sicily (b. 1935; assassinated)[164] January 7 – Simonne Mathieu, French tennis champion (b. 1908) January 8 – John Mauchly, American physicist and inventor (b. 1907)[165] January 11 – Barbara Pym, English novelist (b. 1913)[166] January 13 – Andre Kostelanetz, Russian conductor and arranger (b. 1901) January 18 – Sir Cecil Beaton, English photographer (b. 1904)[167] January 21 – Georges Painvin, French cryptographer (b. 1886) January 22 Walter Pym, Australian actor (b. 1905) Teresa Noce, Italian labor leader, activist, and journalist (b. 1900) January 24 – Lil Dagover, German actress (b. 1887)[168] January 27 Hans Aeschbacher, Swiss sculptor (b. 1906) Peppino De Filippo, Italian actor (b. 1903) January 28 – Franco Evangelisti, Italian composer (b. 1926) January 29 – Jimmy Durante, American actor, singer and comedian (b. 1893)[169] January 30 Maria Bolognesi, Italian Roman Catholic laywoman, mystic and blessed (b. 1924) Professor Longhair, American musician (b. 1918)[170] January 31 – Eduardo Cáceres, Guatemalan politician (b. 1906) February David Janssen Enrico Celio Oskar Kokoschka Mario Mattoli February 2 Hanna Rovina, Russian-born Israeli actress (b. 1889) William Howard Stein, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)[171] February 7 – Sir Richard Williams, Royal Australian Air Force officer (b. 1890) February 8 Nikos Xilouris, Greek pop singer (b. 1936) Francesco Zucchetti, French Olympic cyclist (b. 1902) February 10 – Wels Eicke, Australian rules football player (b. 1893) February 11 – R. C. Majumdar, Indian historian (b. 1884) February 13 – David Janssen, American actor (b. 1931)[172] February 14 – Luitkonwar Rudra Baruah, Assamese composer and actor (b. 1926) February 17 – Graham Sutherland, English artist (b. 1903)[173] February 19 Robert Morrison, British Olympic rower (b. 1902) Bon Scott, Scottish-born Australian rock singer (AC/DC) (b. 1946)[174] February 20 – Alice Roosevelt Longworth, American writer and socialite (b. 1884) February 21 – Aldo Andreotti, Italian mathematician (b. 1924) February 22 – Oskar Kokoschka, Austrian painter and poet (b. 1886)[175] February 23 – Enrico Celio, Swiss politician, 49th President of the Swiss Confederation (b. 1889) February 24 Michael Browne, Irish Roman Catholic prelate (b. 1895) Clement Martyn Doke, South African linguist (b. 1893) February 26 – Mario Mattoli, Italian director and screenwriter (b. 1898) February 27 – Shin'ichi Hisamatsu, Japanese philosopher (b. 1889) February 29 – Yigal Allon, Israeli politician and army general (b. 1918) March Olga Chekhova Mohammad Hatta Boun Oum Óscar Romero Tôn Đức Thắng Jesse Owens March 1 Dixie Dean, English football player (b. 1907) Daniil Khrabrovitsky, Soviet film director (b. 1923) Wilhelmina, Dutch-born American high-fashion model and owner of model agency (b. 1940) March 5 – Jay Silverheels, Canadian actor (b. 1912)[176] March 6 – Barbara Brukalska, Polish architect (b. 1899) March 9 Nikolay Bogolyubov, Soviet and Russian actor (b. 1899) Olga Chekhova, Russian-German actress (b. 1897)[177] March 13 – Roland Symonette, 1st Premier of the Bahamas (b. 1898) March 14 Anna Jantar, Polish singer (b. 1950) Mohammad Hatta, Indonesia's first vice president (b. 1902) Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente, Spanish naturalist and television presenter (b. 1928) March 17 – Boun Oum, 4th Prime Minister of Laos (b. 1911) March 18 Elsa Goveia, Guyanese-born Jamaican scholar (b. 1925) Erich Fromm, German-born psychologist and philosopher (b. 1900)[178] Louise Lovely, Australian actress (b. 1895) Tamara de Lempicka, Polish-born painter (b. 1898)[179] March 24 Pierre Etchebaster, French real tennis player (b. 1893) Óscar Romero, Salvadorian Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1917)[180] March 25 Erminio Macario, Italian actor (b. 1902) Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (b. 1913)[181] Milton H. Erickson, American psychiatrist (b.1901)[182] March 26 – Roland Barthes, French literary critic and writer (b. 1915)[183] March 28 Helena Bochořáková-Dittrichová, Czechoslovak illustrator (b. 1894) Dick Haymes, Argentine actor and singer (b. 1918)[184] March 29 – Mantovani, Italian-born conductor and arranger (b. 1905)[185] March 30 – Tôn Đức Thắng, 2nd President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) (b. 1888) March 31 Vladimír Holan, Czech poet (b. 1905) Jesse Owens, American Olympic athlete (b. 1913)[186] April William Tolbert Jean-Paul Sartre Mario Bava Alfred Hitchco*ck April 6 – Nils Ericson, Swedish actor (b. 1906) April 10 – Kay Medford, American actress and singer (b. 1919) April 11 – Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, Turkish writer (b. 1935) April 12 Clark McConachy, New Zealand snooker and billiards player (b. 1895) William Tolbert, 20th President of Liberia (b. 1913) April 13 – Karl Stegger, Danish actor (b. 1913) April 15 – Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)[187] April 20 – Helmut Käutner, German director (b. 1908) April 21 – Sohrab Sepehri, Persian poet and painter (b. 1928) April 22 Jane Froman, American singer and actress (b. 1907)[188] Fritz Strassmann, German chemist (b. 1902) April 24 – Alejo Carpentier, Cuban writer (b. 1904) April 26 – Cicely Courtneidge, British actress (b. 1893)[189] April 27 – Mario Bava, Italian director (b. 1914) April 29 – Alfred Hitchco*ck, British film director (b. 1899)[190] April 30 – Luis Muñoz Marín, the first elected Governor of Puerto Rico (1949 to 1965) (b. 1898) May Josip Broz Tito Fatmawati May 2 George Pal, Hungarian-born animator and producer (b. 1904)[191] May 4 Kay Hammond, English actress (b. 1909)[184] Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist military and political leader, 19th Prime Minister of Yugoslavia and 1st President of Yugoslavia (b. 1892) May 5 – Isabel Briggs Myers, American psychological theorist and co-creator of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (b. 1897) May 9 Prince Himalaya of Nepal (b. 1921) Kate Molale, South African anti-apartheid activist (b. 1928) May 12 – Lillian Roth, American actress (b. 1910)[192] May 14 Carl Ebert, German theatre and opera director (b. 1887) Hugh Griffith, Welsh actor (b. 1912)[193] Fatmawati, inaugural First Lady of Indonesia (b. 1923) May 16 – Marin Preda, Romanian writer (b. 1922) May 18 David A. Johnston, American volcanologist (b. 1949) (killed by eruption of Mount St. Helens) Ian Curtis, English musician and singer (b. 1956) Reid Blackburn, photojournalist for National Geographic (b. 1952; also killed by eruption of Mount St. Helens) Harry R. Truman, owner/operator of Mt. St. Helens Lodge (b. 1896; killed by eruption of Mount St. Helens) May 20 – Jack Walsh, Australian cricketer (b. 1912) May 21 – Ida Kamińska, Polish-born Jewish actress, playwright and translator (b. 1899) May 28 – Rolf Nevanlinna, Finnish mathematician (b. 1895) June Masayoshi Ōhira Blessed Cosma Spessotto Ignatius Jacob III June 1 – Rube Marquard, American baseball player (New York Giants) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1886) June 2 – Stanley Forman Reed, American lawyer and politician (b. 1884)[194] June 6 – Gualtiero De Angelis, Italian actor and voice actor (b. 1899) June 7 Lillian Dean, Australian photographer and local politician (b. c.1899) Philip Guston, American painter (b. 1913)[195] Henry Miller, American writer (b. 1891)[196] Marian Spychalski, Polish architect and politician, former head of State (b. 1908) June 8 Ernst Busch, German singer and actor (b. 1900) Alfredo Brilhante da Costa, Brazilian football player (b. 1904) June 9 – Shyam Kumari Khan, Indian lawyer (b. 1904) June 12 Billy Butlin, South African-born Canadian founder of Butlins Holiday Camps (b. 1899) Masayoshi Ōhira, Japanese politician, 43rd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1910) June 13 – Walter Rodney, Guyanese historian and political figure (b. 1942) June 14 – Sante Spessotto, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1923) June 18 – Terence Fisher, British director (b. 1904) June 21 – Bert Kaempfert, German orchestra leader and songwriter (b. 1923)[197] June 22 – Joseph Cohen, British solicitor, property developer, cinema magnate and Jewish community leader (b. 1889) June 23 Clyfford Still, American painter (b. 1904) V. V. Giri, Indian politician and 4th President of India (b. 1894) June 24 – Boris Kaufman, Russian cinematographer (b. 1897) June 26 – Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Jacob III (b. 1912) June 28 – José Iturbi, Spanish conductor and musician (b. 1895)[184] June 29 – Jorge Basadre, Peruvian historian (b. 1903) July Abdelhamid Sharaf Salah al-Din al-Bitar Peter Sellers Vladimir Vysotsky Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi July 1 – C. P. Snow, British physicist and novelist (b. 1905)[198] July 3 Deng Hua, Chinese general (b. 1910) Abdelhamid Sharaf, 51st Prime Minister of Jordan (b. 1939) July 4 – Gregory Bateson, British anthropologist, anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, semiotician and cyberneticist (b. 1904)[199] July 6 – Gail Patrick, American actress (b. 1911)[200] July 7 – Prince Dmitri Alexandrovich of Russia (b. 1901) July 8 – Rudolf Creutz, Austrian criminal (b. 1896) July 9 – Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian writer, poet and diplomat (b. 1913) July 10 – Leonidas Zervas, Greek organic chemist (b. 1902) July 12 – John Warren Davis, American educator, college administrator, and civil rights leader (b. 1888)[201][202] July 13 – Seretse Khama, 1st President of Botswana (b. 1921)[203] July 17 – Boris Delaunay, Russian mathematician (b. 1890) July 19 – Nihat Erim, Turkish politician and jurist, 30th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1912) July 20 – Lado Gudiashvili, Soviet painter (b. 1896) July 21 – Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Syrian politician, 2-time Prime Minister of Syria (b. 1912) July 22 – Hans-Georg Bürger, German racing driver (b. 1952) July 24 – Peter Sellers, British comedian and actor (b. 1925)[204] July 25 – Vladimir Vysotsky, Soviet singer-songwriter, poet and actor (b. 1938) July 26 – Kenneth Tynan, English theatre critic (b. 1927) July 27 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (b. 1919)[205] July 28 – Maria Luisa Monteiro da Cunha, Brazilian librarian (b. 1908) July 30 – Lucien Dalsace, French actor (b. 1893) July 31 – Pascual Jordan, German physicist (b. 1902) August Gabriel González Videla August 1 – Patrick Depailler, French racing driver (b. 1944) August 4 – Ioan Arhip, Romanian general (b. 1890) August 9 Harry Bell, Australian footballer (b. 1897) Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran, American pilot (b. 1906) August 10 Gareth Evans, British philosopher (b. 1946) Yahya Khan, Pakistani general and statesman, 3rd President of Pakistan (b. 1917) August 14 – Dorothy Stratten, Canadian actress and model (b. 1960)[206] August 18 – Arman, Iranian-born Soviet actor (b. 1921) August 19 – Otto Frank, German father of Jewish diarist Anne Frank (b. 1889) August 20 – Joe Dassin, American-born French singer-songwriter (b. 1938)[207] August 22 – Gabriel González Videla, 24th President of Chile (b. 1898) August 25 – Gower Champion, American theatre director, choreographer and dancer (b. 1919)[208] August 26 – Tex Avery, American animator and director (b. 1908)[209] August 29 – Franco Basaglia, Italian psychiatrist and professor (b. 1924)[210] September Bill Evans Jean Piaget John Bonham September 3 Barbara O'Neil, American actress (b. 1909)[211] Dirch Passer, Danish actor (b. 1926) September 4 Pepe Abad, Spanish-born Chilean television presenter and radio host (b. 1932) George Murray Burnett, British mathematician and chemist (b. 1921) September 5 – Don Banks, Australian composer (b. 1923) September 8 – Willard Libby, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)[212] September 9 – Manzoor Ali Khan, Pakistani classical singer (b. 1922) September 12 – Lillian Randolph, American actress (b. 1898) September 13 – Victoria Nyame, Ghanaian politician[213] September 14 – Domingo Acedo, Spanish football player (b. 1898) September 15 – Bill Evans, American jazz pianist (b. 1929)[214] September 16 – Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist (b. 1896)[215] September 17 – Anastasio Somoza Debayle, President of Nicaragua 1967–72, 1974-79 (b. 1925)[216] September 18 – Katherine Anne Porter, American author (b. 1890) September 19 – Sol Lesser, American film producer (b. 1890) September 23 – Jacobus Johannes Fouché, 5th President of South Africa (b. 1898) September 25 John Bonham, British rock drummer (Led Zeppelin) (b. 1948) Lewis Milestone, American film director (b. 1895)[217] Marie Under, Estonian poet (b. 1883) October John Kotelawala Edelmiro Julián Farrell October 2 – John Kotelawala, Sri Lanka soldier and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Ceylon (b. 1895) October 6 – Hattie Jacques, British actress (b. 1922) October 7 – Sydney Gordon Russell, English designer and craftsman (b. 1892) October 10 – Elizabeth Rummel, German-Canadian mountaineer and environmental activist (b. 1897) October 12 – Alberto Demicheli, Uruguayan political figure, former president of Uruguay (de facto) (b. 1896) October 15 – Prince Peter of Greece and Denmark (b. 1908)[218] October 18 – Hans Ehard, German lawyer and politician (b. 1887) October 21 Hans Asperger, Austrian pediatrician after whom Asperger syndrome was named (b. 1906) Valko Chervenkov, Bulgarian Communist leader and statesman, 34th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1900) Edelmiro Julián Farrell, Argentine general, 28th President of Argentina (b. 1887) October 23 Tibor Rosenbaum, Hungarian-born Swiss rabbi and businessman (b. 1923) Mariano Suárez, Ecuadorian politician, 27th President of Ecuador (b. 1897) October 25 Virgil Fox, American organist (b. 1912) Víctor Galíndez, Argentine boxer (b. 1948) Sahir Ludhianvi, Urdu/Hindustani poet and Hindi film lyricist (b. 1921) October 26 – Marcelo Caetano, Portuguese politician and scholar, 101st Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1906) October 27 Steve Peregrin Took, British rock musician (b. 1949) John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1899)[219] October 29 – Giorgio Borġ Olivier, Maltese politician and statesman, 7th Prime Minister of Malta (b. 1911) October 31 – Jan Werich, Czech actor, playwright and writer (b. 1905) November Steve McQueen Sir John McEwen Sara García Mae West November 4 Elsie MacGill, Canadian aeronautical engineer (b. 1904) Johnny Owen, Welsh professional boxer (b. 1956) November 7 – Steve McQueen, American actor (b. 1930)[220] November 9 Gloria Guinness, Mexican-born American fashion icon (b. 1912) November 10 – Marion Allnutt, welfare worker and full-time secretary and commanding officer of the NGO, Women's Australian National Services (WANS) (b. 1896) November 16 Boris Aronson, Russian set designer (b. 1898) Imogen Hassall, English actress (b. 1942) November 18 – Conn Smythe, Canadian NHL coach (b. 1895) November 20 Avtandil Gogoberidze, Soviet football player (b. 1922) Sir John McEwen, Australian politician, 18th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1900) November 21 – Sara García, Mexican actress (b. 1895) November 22 Norah McGuinness, Northern Irish painter and illustrator (b. 1901) Mae West, American actress (b. 1893) Leonard Barr, American stand-up comic, actor, and dancer (b. 1903) November 24 George Raft, American actor (b. 1901) Molly Reilly, Canadian aviator (b. 1922) November 25 – Herbert Flam, American tennis player (b. 1928)[221] November 26 – Rachel Roberts, British actress (b. 1927) November 27 – F. Burrall Hoffman, American architect (b. 1882) November 29 Dorothy Day, American journalist, activist, Roman Catholic convert and Servant of God (b. 1897) Babe London, American actress and comedian (b. 1901) December John Lennon Colonel Sanders Alexei Kosygin Héctor José Cámpora Karl Dönitz December 2 – Romain Gary, Lithuanian-born writer (b. 1914)[222] December 3 – Sir Oswald Mosley, British fascist leader (b. 1896)[223] December 4 Francisco de Sá Carneiro, Portuguese lawyer, 109th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1934) Stanisława Walasiewicz, Polish-born runner (b. 1911) December 7 – Darby Crash, American rock songwriter, singer (b. 1958) December 8 – John Lennon, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1940)[224] December 10 – Patriarch Benedict I of Jerusalem (b. 1892) December 12 – Bruno Bartolozzi, Italian composer (b. 1911) December 14 – Nichita Smochină, Moldovan activist (b. 1894) December 16 Colonel Sanders, American fast-food entrepreneur (b. 1890)[225] Hellmuth Walter, German engineer and inventor (b. 1900) Peter Collinson, British film director (b. 1936) December 18 Alexei Kosygin, Soviet politician, Premier of the Soviet Union (b. 1904) Sir Albert Margai, 2nd Prime Minister of Sierra Leone (b. 1910) December 19 – Héctor José Cámpora, Argentine Peronist politician, 38th President of Argentina (b. 1909) December 21 – Marc Connelly, American playwright (b. 1890)[226] December 24 Karl Dönitz, German admiral and 4th President of Germany (b. 1891) Heikki Liimatainen, Finnish Olympic athlete (b. 1894) December 29 – Tim Hardin, American musician (b. 1941)[227] December 31 Marshall McLuhan, Canadian author and professor (b. 1911)[228] Raoul Walsh, American film director (b. 1887) Date unknown Nureddine Rifai, 25th Prime Minister of Lebanon (b. 1899) Nobel Prizes Nobel medal.png Physics – James Watson Cronin, Val Logsdon Fitch Chemistry – Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger Medicine – Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. 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Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2008. "Irina Embrich". "MILLS, Cory". "Oliver Marach". Bloom, Nate. "The Most Complete Guide to Jewish Emmy Nominees, 2021 — Detroit Jewish News". The Detroit Jewish News. Archived from the original on September 17, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2021. "David Blu Player Profile, USC, NCAA Stats, International Stats, Events Stats, Game Logs, Awards - RealGM". "Xavier Malisse". Simon Barclay (2012). EURO 2012 The 14th UEFA European Football Championship. p. 294. ISBN 978-1-4717-7037-1. Editors of Chase's (September 24, 2019). Chase's Calendar of Events 2020: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 383. ISBN 978-1-64143-316-7. Milner, John M. (December 19, 2006). "Nick Nemeth". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2012. "Roman Weidenfeller". "Shayna Baszler". "Güiza". "Cambiasso, Esteban". Paul T. Hellmann (February 14, 2006). Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Routledge. p. 783. ISBN 1-135-94859-3. Editors of Chase's (September 30, 2018). Chase's Calendar of Events 2019: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 428. ISBN 978-1-64143-264-1. "Maria Anna Madia". Ray, Michael. Alternative, Country, Hip-Hop, Rap, and More: Music from the 1980s to Today, p. 87. Britannica Educational Publishing, 2012. ISBN 9781615309108. Accessed November 8, 2017, "The group's original lineup consisted of Way, brother Michael James (Mikey) Way (born September 10, 1980, Newark, New Jersey) on bass, drummer Matt Pelissier, and guitarists Ray Toro (born July 15, 1977, in Kearny, New Jersey) and Frank Iero (born October 31, 1981, in Belleville, New Jersey)." "Roda Antar". "Sara McMann". "6. John Arne Riise". Suze Clemitson (October 8, 2015). P Is For Peloton: The A-Z Of Cycling. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4729-2419-3. "General Information about the player Nikola Žigić". "Yelena Khrustalyova". "Zachary Levi". TV Guide. Retrieved August 3, 2011. Karen Christensen; Allen Guttmann; Gertrud Pfister (2001). International Encyclopedia of Women and Sports: H-R. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 509. ISBN 978-0-02-864952-8. – vital stats About James Toseland at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 May 2012) "Henrik Zetterberg | #40". Laufenberg, Norbert B. (2005). Entertainment Celebrities. p. 25. ISBN 1-4120-5335-8. Film Review. W.H. Allen. 2006. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-905287-28-4. FIVB Profile "Kimberly Noel Kardashian, Born 10/21/1980 in California". California Birth Index. Retrieved August 17, 2013. "Casey Wilson: Penny on ABC's 'Happy Endings'". ABC Medianet. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2012. Birthdate: October 24 "C. Chivu". "Eva Wahlström". "Nakamura, Kengo". "Luke Hemsworth biography". Tribute Entertainment Media Group. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2018. "PÅL SVERRE HAGEN VALHEIM V08". DET NORSKET TEATRET. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2013. "Luís Fabiano". "Vanessa Lachey". Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2014. "MALLIOTAKIS, Nicole". Editors of Chase's (October 27, 2020). Chase's Calendar of Events 2021: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 554. ISBN 978-1-64143-424-9. "Dip. Stalin González". Retrieved June 27, 2018. "29. Christian Poulsen". "Janina Gavankar — Shape shifting Stunner". FHM. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2012. "Anna Chlumsky Actor". Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. "Jenna Dewan Celebrates Birthday With Steamy Nude Dip in Hot Tub With Fiancé Steve Kazee". Kristyn Burtt. Yahoo News. December 14, 2021. BBC Music Magazine. BBC Magazines. 2006. p. 24. "DEGUY ALAIN DIDIER ZOKORA". Wang, Julia. "Christina Aguilera Biography". People. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2014. Film Review. Orpheus Pub. 2004. p. 81. "3. Martin Demichelis". Chris Schoeman (2007). Legends of the Ball: Rugby's Greatest Players Chosen by Willie John McBride, Frik Du Preez, David Compese. CJS Books. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-620-36962-6. Socialist Affairs. Socialist International. 1980. p. 20. "Frank Wykoff". US Olympic and Paralympic Museum. July 21, 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2021. Brittain, Victoria (January 8, 1980). "Kenyans Say Murder Suspected In the Death of 'Born Free' Author". The Washington Post. Washington, DC: Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved January 2, 2018. Schneider, Jane T. & Peter T. Schneider (2003). Reversible Destiny: Mafia, Antimafia, and the Struggle for Palermo, Berkeley: University of California Press ISBN 0-520-23609-2 page=158 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC. DIANE Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4289-1659-3. Constance Wootten Malloy (1988). Becoming a Heroine Quietly: The Life and Work of Barbara Pym. U. of Calif., Davis. p. 521. Elizabeth Lomas; Archive of Art and Design (Great Britain) (2001). Guide to the Archive of Art and Design, Victoria & Albert Museum. Taylor & Francis. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-57958-315-6. Wistrich, Robert S. (1982). Who's Who in Nazi Germany. New York: Macmillan. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-02-630600-3. John Parker (1981). Who's who in the Theatre. Pitman. p. 745. ISBN 9780810302358. Robert Santelli (2001). The Big Book of Blues: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Penguin Books. p. 382. ISBN 978-0-14-100145-6. Biographical Memoirs: V.56. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. January 1, 1987. doi:10.17226/897. ISBN 978-0-309-03693-1. Seiler, Michael (February 14, 1980). "From the Archives: Massive Heart Attack Kills Actor David Janssen, 48". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 30, 2020. John T. Hayes (1980). The Art of Graham Sutherland. Alpine Fine Arts Collection Limited. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-933516-18-2. Colin Larkin (1995). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Guinness Pub. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-56159-176-3. Frank Whitford (1986). Oskar Kokoschka: A Life. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-297-78718-1. "Jay Silverheels". The Lone Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2011. Jay Silverheels suffered a stroke in 1974 and passed away on March 5, 1980 after several years of ill health Antony Beevor (May 5, 2005). The Mystery of Olga Chekhova: The true story of a family torn apart by revolution and war. Penguin Books Limited. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-14-192594-3. "Fromm: otro volcán en Cuernavaca" [Fromm: Another volcano in Cuernavaca] (in Spanish). En el Volcan. October 1, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2019. Kathleen Burner; Sarah Wilson; Royal Academy of Arts (Great Britain) (March 2002). Paris: Capital of the Arts. Harry N. Abrams. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-8109-6639-0. United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and Related Programs (1985). Foreign assistance and related programs appropriations for 1986: hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations... U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 304–. Bernas, Richard and Ruth B Hilton. "Susskind, Walter", Grove Music Online, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 June 2014 (subscription required) Milton H. Erickson; Zeig (1980). Teaching Seminar with Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Psychology Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-87630-247-7. Martin McQuillan (March 1, 2011). Roland Barthes. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-230-34389-4. John Willis; Crown (September 1981). John Willis' Screen World, 1981. Crown Publishing Group. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-517-54482-2. Guy A. Marco (1993). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound in the United States. Garland Pub. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-8240-4782-5. "Jesse Owens Dies Of Cancer At 66: Hero of the 1936 Berlin Olympics". The New York Times. April 1, 1980. Retrieved August 5, 2013. Paul Holmes; Marcia Karp (1991). Psychodrama: Inspiration and Technique. Tavistock/Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-415-02672-7. Roger D. Kinkle (1997). Leading Musical Performers (popular Music and Jazz) 1900-1950: 2150 Biographies Updated to 1996 with Additions and Corrections. Windmill Publications. p. 117. Pepys-Whiteley, D. "Courtneidge, Dame (Esmerelda) Cicely (1893–1980)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, January 2011, accessed 8 August 2011 (subscription required) Flint, Peter B. (April 30, 1980). "Alfred Hitchco*ck Dies; A Master of Suspense". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018. Malcolm Cook; Kirsten Moana Thompson (December 17, 2019). Animation and Advertising. Springer Nature. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-030-27939-4. Ledbetter, Les (1980). "Lillian Roth, Actress and Singer, Dies...", The New York Times, May 13, 1980, p. C20. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, Ann Arbor, Michigan; subscription access through The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library. "Griffith, Hugh Emrys (1912–1980)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/55467. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Stanley F. Reed United States jurist "Philip Guston | Smithsonian American Art Museum". Retrieved October 4, 2020. Jay Parini (2004). The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature: Norman Mailer-Sentimental literature. Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-19-516726-9. Glebb, Lloyd-Lincoln, Abbey (1995). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Guinness Pub. p. 2243. David Shusterman (1991). C.P. Snow. Twayne Publishers. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8057-6993-7. 'Gregory Bateson: Old Men Ought to be Explorers', Stephen Nachmanovitch, CoEvolution Quarterly, Fall 1982 "Gail Patrick, Actress Who Gave Up Movies to Produce TV Series". The New York Times. July 7, 1980. West Virginia Archives and History (2019). "John Warren Davis". West Virginia Department of Arts, Culture and History. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020. Anderson, Gene (July 13, 1980). "Dr. John Warren Davis, adviser to five presidents". The Record. Hackensack, New Jersey. p. 22. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020 – via Jacqueline Audrey Kalley; Elna Schoeman; Lydia Eve Andor (1999). Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to Mid-1997. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-30247-3. Ian Herbert (1981). Who's who in the Theatre: A Biographical Record of the Contemporary Stage. Gale Research Company. p. 748. ISBN 978-0-8103-0235-8. "Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi | Biography, History, & White Revolution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 27, 2021. Canby, Vincent (November 10, 1983). "Screen: 'Star 80,' A Sex-Symbol's Life and Death". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2008. "Joe Dassin, le roman de sa vie (France 3) – Le destin singulier d'une l'icône de la chanson française". Télé 7 Jours. David Payne-Carter (1999). Gower Champion: Dance and American Musical Theatre. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-313-30451-4. John Canemaker (1996). Tex Avery: The MGM Years, 1942-1955. Turner Pub. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-57036-291-0. John Foot (August 1, 2014). "Franco Basaglia and the radical psychiatry movement in Italy, 1961–78". Crit Radic Soc Work. 2 (2): 235–249. doi:10.1332/204986014X14002292074708. PMC 4430803. PMID 25984302. "Barbara O'Neil Dies". September 4, 1980. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2022. LA Times Archive The Nuclear Engineer: Journal of the Institution of Nuclear Engineers. Institution of Nuclear Engineers. 1980. p. 184. West Africa, Issues 3285-3309. West Africa Publishing Company. 1980. p. 1862. Ian Carr (1998). Miles Davis: The Definitive Biography. HarperCollins. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-00-255222-6. Eva Marie Schepeler (1990). The Psychological Development of Jean Piaget: Interrelations of His Life and Work. U. of Calif., Davis. p. 269. Harris M. Lentz (1988). Assassinations and Executions: An Encyclopedia of Political Violence, 1865-1986. McFarland. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-89950-312-7. John Willis; Crown (September 1981). John Willis' Screen World, 1981. Crown Publishing Group. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-517-54482-2. Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur) (1980). Man in India. A. K. Bose. p. 332. "John Van Vleck, Nobel Laureate Known for Work on Magnetism; Earned Three Degree". The New York Times. October 28, 1980. p. A32. Flint, Peter (November 8, 1980). "Steve McQueen, 50, Is Dead of a Heart Attack After Surgery for Cancer; Family Was at Bedside Established His Stardom In 'Bullitt' and 'Papillon' Friend Suggested Acting 'Don't Cap Me Up'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2008. "Tennis - Herbert Flam (Etats Unis)". D. Bona (1987). Romain Gary. Paris: Mercure de France-Lacombe. pp. 397–398. "Sir Oswald Mosley cremated in Paris". The Times. London. December 9, 1980. p. 6. Ingham, Chris (2006). The Rough Guide to The Beatles. Rough Guides. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-84353-720-5. Paula Kepos; Thomas Derdak (July 1993). International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-1-55862-322-4. Elizabeth A. Brennan; Elizabeth C. Clarage (1999). Who's who of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-57356-111-2. Colin Larkin (1995). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Guinness Pub. p. 1832. ISBN 978-1-56159-176-3. Whitman, Alden (January 1, 1981). "Marshall McLuhan, Author, Dies; Declared 'Medium Is the Message'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2012. Queen Elizabeth II is the longest-serving monarch in British history and one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world. She has been on the throne for more than sixty years and is an enduring symbol of continuity and stability for the United Kingdom and its people. Her reign has seen the country through times of great change, from the end of World War II to the rise of the digital age. Here, we look at the life and legacy of Queen Elizabeth II, from her early years to her recent Diamond Jubilee and beyond. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born on April 21, 1926, in London, United Kingdom. She was the first child of the Duke and duch*ess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth was educated privately at home, and then at boarding schools in the United Kingdom and Switzerland. In 1945, she enrolled at the University of Grenoble, but her studies were cut short when her father ascended the throne in February 1952. Elizabeth was then proclaimed Queen of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Realms. At the time of her ascension, Queen Elizabeth II was just twenty-five years old. She was the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which was established in 1917 by her grandfather, King George V. Throughout her reign, the Queen has focused on maintaining the unity of the United Kingdom and its Commonwealth, and promoting a sense of national identity. She has remained a unifying figure and a symbol of stability in a changing world. The Queen has reigned through times of both prosperity and difficulty, from the economic prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s to the recession of the 1970s and 1980s. She has also witnessed the dawn of the digital age and the rise of social media, with which she has kept pace. In 2012, the Queen made her first tweet to mark the launch of the Olympic Games in London, showing her commitment to staying connected with her people. As a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II has kept her public engagements to a minimum and has avoided expressing political views. However, she has been a vocal advocate for youth, education, and the environment, and has held honorary positions in numerous organisations. She is also a patron of the arts, having attended various theatrical events throughout her reign. In 2012, the Queen was a guest of honour at the Royal Variety Performance, which marked her diamond jubilee year. To mark her sixtieth year on the throne, Queen Elizabeth II was celebrated with the Diamond Jubilee in 2012. The Queen and the Royal Family embarked on a tour of the United Kingdom, Ireland, and the Commonwealth Realms. During this time, she met with members of the public, visited schools, and attended numerous public engagements. The jubilee was also marked with a special concert held in her honour, featuring performances from some of the world’s biggest stars. Queen Elizabeth II is a symbol of continuity, stability, and duty. Throughout her reign, she has been a source of inspiration for all of her people, no matter their background or beliefs. She has worked hard to protect the unity of the United Kingdom, and to promote its values both at home and abroad. As she enters her ninth decade on the throne, the Queen remains a vital part of the United Kingdom’s national identity and a beloved figure for the British people.

  • Condition: In Excellent Condition
  • Year of Issue: 1980
  • Number of Pieces: 1
  • Time Period: 1980s
  • Fineness: Unknown
  • Features: Commemorative
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Country of Origin: Great Britain
  • Colour: Silver

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