SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London • EUR 12,36 (2024)

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Venditore: anddownthewaterfall ✉️ (33.950) 99.7%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Manchester, Take a Look at My Other Items, GB, Spedizione verso: WORLDWIDE, Numero oggetto: 315357065624 SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London. 1900 Three Pence Coin The Start of the 20th Century British Threepence Coin from 1900 from the reign of Queen Victoria who appears on one side of the coin Solid 0.925 Silver In Good Condition given it is over one hundred and twenty years old Starting at less than its original monetary value one Penny...With No Reserve ..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! Would make an Excellent Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir of the worlds most famous football team I will have a lot of Similar items on Ebay so Check out my other items ! Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback Check out my other items ! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. 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I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Threepence (British coin) Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Threepenny bit" redirects here. For the building in south London, see No. 1 Croydon. For other uses, see Threepence (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Threepence" British coin – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Threepence United Kingdom Value £0.0125 Mass Silver: 1.415 g Nickel-brass: 6.8 g Diameter Silver: 16.20 mm Nickel-brass: 21.0–21.8 mm Thickness Nickel-brass: 2.5 mm Edge Plain Composition 1816–1919: 92.5% Ag 1920–1945: 50% Ag 1937–1970: Nickel-brass (79% Cu, 20% Zn, 1% Ni) Years of minting 1547–1970 Obverse Design Profile of the monarch Reverse Design Various The British threepence piece, usually simply known as a threepence, thruppence, or thruppenny bit, was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 1⁄80 of one pound or 1⁄4 of one shilling. It was used in the United Kingdom, and earlier in Great Britain and England. Similar denominations were later used throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth countries, notably in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The sum of three pence was pronounced variously /ˈθrʊpɛns/ THRUUP-ənss, /ˈθrɛpəns/ THREP-ənss or /ˈθrʌpəns/ THRUP-ənss, reflecting different pronunciations in the various regions of the United Kingdom. The coin was often referred to in conversation as a /ˈθrʊpni/ THRUUP-nee, /ˈθrɛpni/ THREP-nee or /ˈθrʌpni/ THRUP-nee bit. Before Decimal Day in 1971, sterling used the Carolingian monetary system, under which the largest unit was a pound divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The threepence coin was withdrawn in 1971 due to decimalisation and replaced by the decimal new penny, with 2.4d being worth 1p. Early threepences Threepence of James VI and I, minted in Ireland The three pence coin – expressed in writing as "3d" – first appeared in England during the fine silver coinage of King Edward VI (1547–53), when it formed part of a set of new denominations. Although it was an easy denomination to work with in the context of the old sterling coinage system, being a quarter of a shilling, initially it was not popular with the public who preferred the groat (four pence). Hence the coin was not minted in the following two reigns – if one controversially counts Jane or incorrectly treats coins in the sole name of Mary as being a separate "reign" from those which also show and name her husband Philip. Edward VI threepences were struck at the London and York mints. The obverse shows a front-facing bust of the king, with a rose to the left and the value numeral III to the right, surrounded by the legend EDWARD VI D G ANG FRA Z HIB REX. The reverse shows a long cross over the royal shield, surrounded by the legend (London mint) POSUI DEUM ADIUTOREM MEUM (I have made God my helper), or (York mint) CIVITAS EBORACI (City of York). Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) produced threepences during her third coinage (1561–1577). Most 1561 issues are 21 mm in diameter, while later ones are 19 mm in diameter. These coins are identifiable from other denominations by the rose behind the queen's head on the obverse, and the date on the reverse. The obverse shows a left-facing crowned bust of the queen with a rose behind her, surrounded by the legend ELIZABETH D G ANG FR ET HIB REGINA, while the reverse shows shield over a long cross, dated 1561, surrounded by the legend POSUI DEU ADIUTOREM MEU. Dates used for the smaller coins were 1561–77. Threepences of the fourth coinage (1578–1582) are identical except for having a slightly lower silver content. There was also a fairly rare milled coinage threepence, produced between 1561 and 1564 with similar designs and inscriptions to the hammered coinage threepences. The threepence denomination fell out of use again during the reign of King James I, while during King Charles I's reign (1625–49) it was not produced at the London Tower mint, but was produced (sometimes in some quantity) at various provincial mints. The denomination is identified by the numeral III appearing behind the king's head. Threepences reintroduced Charles I threepence (Aberystwyth, 1638–42) By far the most common Charles I threepences were produced at the Aberystwyth mint between 1638 and 1642. They feature a left-facing crowned bust of the king with plumes in front of his face and the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS DG MA B FR ET H REX (or a combination of M(A) B F(R) ET H(I)(B) depending on the engraver), with the reverse showing the royal arms on a large oval shield with plumes above the shield, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO – I reign under the auspices of Christ. Plumes were the identifying symbol of the Aberystwyth mint, but the Bristol and Oxford mints often used dies from the Aberystwyth mint so plumes often appear on their output too. Milled coins were produced at the York mint between 1638 and 1649, which look similar to the Aberystwyth product but without the plumes – the obverse features a left-facing crowned bust of the king with the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield over a cross, with EBOR over the shield and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. Coins were produced at the Oxford mint between 1644 and 1646, using the Aberystwyth dies for the obverse, while the reverse of the 1644 coin shows the Declaration of Oxford in three lines: RELI PRO LEG ANG LIB PAR. 1644 OX – The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament. 1644 Oxford, while around the outside of the coin is the legend EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI – Let God arise and His enemies be scattered. This coin also appears dated 1646. A further type produced at Oxford had on the obverse the king's bust with the denomination behind him, and the letter "R" (for Rawlins, the maker of the die) below the king's shoulder and the legend CAROLUS D G M BR F ET H REX and the Aberystwyth reverse. Rarer threepences The mint at Bristol produced rare threepences in 1644 and 1645. In 1644 the Aberystwyth obverse was used to produce a coin with the reverse showing the Declaration of Oxford: REL PRO LEG AN LIB PA 1644 – The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament 1644, while around the outside of the coin is the legend EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI – Let God arise and His enemies be scattered. This was repeated in 1645, but with a plumelet instead of a plume in front of the king's face. In 1644 the Exeter mint produced a fairly scarce threepence. It features a left-facing crowned bust of the king with the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS D G MA BR F ET H RE, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield with the date 1644 above the shield, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. No threepences were produced by the Commonwealth of England. A quantity of (370,000) silver threepences were struck dated 1945, although these were all melted with the metal used in other mint products. However, it is believed a handful escaped, with one example selling for £62,000 at auction in 2020.[1] Mid-to-late 17th century The final hammered coinage threepences were produced at the start of the reign of King Charles II. In style they are very reminiscent of his father's issues, the obverse featuring the bust of the king, with the numeral III and the legend CAROLUS II D G MAG BRI F ET H REX, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield over a cross, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. The milled silver threepences of Charles II form two types. There is the undated issue which looks very like the earlier hammered coinage, with a crowned left-facing bust of the king with the denomination indicated by III behind his head, and the inscription CAROLVS II D G M B F & H REX, with the reverse showing a shield encircling the arms of England, Scotland, Ireland and France with the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. This was followed by the dated issue, issued each year from 1670 to 1684, where the obverse features a right-facing uncrowned bust of the king and the inscription CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA, with the reverse showing three crowned interlinked "C"s (indicating the value) and the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX date. All milled silver threepences were 17 millimetres in diameter and weighed 1.5 grams – dimensions which were unchanged until near the end of the reign of George III. A similar threepence was produced for King James II, dated 1685 to 1688, the obverse showing a left-facing bust of the king and the inscription IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA, with the reverse showing three crowned "I"s (indicating the value) and the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX date. For the joint reign of King William III and Queen Mary II, threepences were produced in all years from 1689 to 1694. For the first two years a somewhat caricatured portrait of the monarchs was used, replaced by a rather more staid portrait in 1691, with the inscription GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D G, while the reverse shows a crowned Arabic number "3" and the inscription MAG BR FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA date. For the sole reign of William III, the design remained very similar, with the inscriptions changed to GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA and MAG BR FR ET HIB REX date. Early 18th century In the reign of Queen Anne (1702–1714), the same basic design was used, with threepences produced in 1703–10 and 1713. The obverse shows a left-facing bust of the Queen, with the inscription ANNA DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BR FR ET HIB REG date (1703–05, 1707), MAG BR FRA ET HIB REG (1706), or MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG (1708–13). The design continued in the reign of King George I, when threepences were produced in 1717, 1721, 1723, and 1727. The obverse shows a right-facing bust of the King, with the inscription GEORGIVS DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date. Unusually, the same young portrait of King George II was used on the threepence throughout his reign (1727–60), despite an older portrait being used on other denominations from 1743. Threepences were produced in 1729, 1731, 1732, 1735, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1743, 1746, and 1760. The obverse shows a left-facing bust of the King, with the inscription GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date. Change of role While the silver threepence was minted as a currency coin until nearly the middle of the 20th century, it is clear that the purpose of the coin changed during the reign of King George III (1760–1820). In the first two years of minting, 1762 and 1763, the coin was obviously produced for general circulation as examples are generally found well worn; on the other hand, coins from the late issue (1817–20) are usually found in very fine condition, indicating that they were probably issued as Maundy money. Over the length of the reign there were several different designs of obverse and reverse in use. Threepences were issued in 1762–63, 1765–66, 1770, 1772, 1780, 1784, 1786, 1792, 1795, 1800, 1817, 1818, and 1820. From 1817 the dimensions of the coin were reduced to a weight of 1.4 grams (defined as 1⁄22 troy ounce[2]) and diameter of 16 millimetres, following the Great Recoinage of 1816. The inscription on the obverse reads GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA up to 1800, and GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA date from 1817. The reverse inscription reads MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date up to 1800 and BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF date from 1817. By the start of the reign of King George IV (1820–30) the coin was being struck primarily as a Maundy coin, although some coins were produced for use in the colonies. See Maundy money for full details of these issues. Threepences were struck in all years from 1822 to 1830, though the king's head is smaller on the 1822 issue, apparently because the correct punch broke and the one from the twopence was used instead. The obverse inscription reads GEORGIUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, while the reverse shows a new-style crowned "3" and date, all within a wreath. In King William IV's reign (1830–37), maundy coins were produced in 1831–37, and identical circulation coins were produced for the colonies, identifiable only through not having a prooflike surface. The obverse inscription reads GULIELMUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, while the reverse shows the new-style crowned "3" and date, all within a wreath. Queen Victoria Victoria threepence 1899 During the reign of Queen Victoria, threepences were produced both for Maundy use and for normal circulation in all years between 1838 and 1901 except 1847, 1848, and 1852 (perhaps because of the proposal for a decimal currency at the time (see florin); the 3d at 1⁄80 pound would not have fitted within a decimal system). Currency silver threepences from 1838 to 1926 were of identical design and cannot usually be distinguished except in the best conditions when the higher striking standard of the Maundy coins stands out; when the currency was decimalised in 1971, all silver threepences from 1870 onwards were revalued at three new pence, not just the Maundy coins. Threepences were produced both with the "young head" (1838–87) and with the "Jubilee head" (1887–93), inscribed VICTORIA D G BRITANNIAR REGINA F D, while those produced with the "old head" (1893–1901) are inscribed VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Early 20th century The currency threepence was issued for each of the nine years of the reign of King Edward VII from 1902. The reverse design remained the same, while the obverse showed the right-facing effigy of the king, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII D G BRITT OMN REX F D IND IMP. The reign of King George V (1910–1936) features several changes to the threepence denomination. As with all British silver coins, the silver content was reduced from sterling (0.925) silver to 50% silver, 40% copper, 10% nickel in 1920, 50% silver, 50% copper in 1922, and 50% silver, 40% copper, 5% nickel, 5% zinc in 1927, while the design of the reverse of the circulating threepence (but not the maundy threepence) was completely changed in 1927 to three oak sprigs with three acorns and a "G" in the centre, and the inscription THREE PENCE date. The inscription on the obverse throughout the reign was GEORGIVS V D G BRITT OMN REX F D IND IMP. The threepences of King Edward VIII were all patterns awaiting royal approval at the time of the abdication in December 1936. The silver threepence had another completely new reverse – three interlinked rings of Saint Edmund, with the inscription FID DEF IND IMP 1937 THREE PENCE, while the obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king with the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX and a very small silver engravement. Brass vs silver threepences A 1943 brass threepenny bit By the end of George V's reign the threepence had become unpopular in England because of its small size (George Orwell comments on this in Keep the Aspidistra Flying[3]), but it remained popular in Scotland. It was consequently decided to introduce a more substantial threepenny coin which would have a more convenient weight/value ratio than the silver coinage. The silver threepence continued to be minted, as there may have been some uncertainty about how well the new coin would be accepted. The reign of Edward VIII saw the planned introduction of a new, larger, nickel-brass (79% copper, 20% zinc, 1% nickel) twelve-sided threepence coin. This coin weighed 6.6 grams (0.23 oz) and the diameter was 21 millimetres (0.83 in) across the sides and 22 millimetres (0.87 in) across the corners. The obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king[4] (not right as would have been the convention to alternate the direction) with the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP, and the reverse shows a three-headed thrift plant with the inscription THREE PENCE 1937. A total of just 12 of these coins were struck for experimental purposes and sent to a slot machine manufacturing company for testing. The whereabouts of six of those 12 are known. However, the other six are still out there somewhere and, as such, they are extremely rare today. An example was put up for auction in 2013, expecting £30,000.[citation needed] There are two types of Edward VIII brass threepences. The first type has the date broken by a thrift plant design and the second has the date below. During the reign of King George VI, circulation silver threepences were produced only in 1937–45 (and almost all the 1945 examples were subsequently melted down). The obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king with the inscription GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX, while the reverse has an elegant design of a shield of St George lying on a Tudor rose, dividing the date, with the inscription FID DEF IND IMP THREE PENCE. The nickel-brass threepence took over the bulk of the production of the denomination, being produced in all years between 1937 and 1952 except 1947. Apart from the king's head and name, and the weight being increased to 6.8 grams (0.24 oz), the coin was identical to that prepared for Edward VIII.[5] Coins dated 1946 and 1949 were minted in far fewer numbers than the rest, and as nickel-brass wears very quickly; higher grade specimens of these coins are expensive to buy now (both over £500 for uncirculated examples). The scarce dates are 1948, 1950 and 1951 and these are now selling for £60–£80 in mint state. Elizabeth II threepences The physical dimensions of the brass threepence remained the same in the reign of Queen Elizabeth II. The effigy of the queen produced by Mary Gillick was used, with the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D used in 1953, and ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D used in all other years. The reverse shows a Tudor portcullis with chains and a coronet, with the inscription THREE PENCE date. This coin was produced in all years from 1953 to 1967, and in 1970 (in proof sets only). Following decimalisation, the brass threepence ceased to be legal tender after 31 August 1971. The Commonwealth A three pence coin was also used in the pre-decimalisation currencies of Commonwealth of Nations countries such as Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand. It was called a tickey in South Africa[6] and Southern Rhodesia.[7] Building No. 1 Croydon was known for many years as the "threepenny bit building" for its resemblance to a stack of threepenny coins. After the coins were phased out (beginning in 1970) the building eventually gained a new nickname, the "50p building". Nickname The silver threepenny bit became known as a 'joey'. However, the original 'joey' was the groat (or fourpence).The groat was re-introduced in 1836 during the reign of William IV at the suggestion of Joseph Hume (1777-1855).Popularly known as the 'joey',named after Hume's christian name, it was introduced to ease transactions on the London buses, the fare being four pence or one groat. As the last groats were struck in 1888 the nickname passed to the silver threepences struck after that date until 1941 (the last year of production for British use). The silver threepence continued to be struck for three further years from 1942 to 1944 inclusive although for colonial use only as the 12-sided brass threepences were being struck in large numbers. The 12-sided coin reprised In March 2014, the Royal Mint announced that a new design of one pound coin would be introduced in 2017, reprising the twelve-sided shape. The new coin was designed to be more difficult to counterfeit.[8][9] October 2019 – sale of 120,000 threepences In 2019, the London Mint Office authorised and oversaw the sale of 120,000 silver threepence coins dated to King George V's reign; one threepence from the sale is included in this image alongside a gold half sovereign from 1911. In October 2019, it was announced that 120,000 silver threepences dated to 1935 and earlier were to be sold to the general public, as part of a move to encourage people to pick up coin collecting and numismatics.[10] The London Mint Office oversaw the sale of the coins, which all date from George V's reign and were valued at a total of approximately £1m, although a more realistic valuation would be in the region of £60,000.[citation needed] See also icon Money portal Numismatics portal flag United Kingdom portal Irish three-pence coin Australian threepence coin New Zealand pound References 1945 Threepence sells for £62,000 Kindleberger, Charles P. (2005). A Financial History of Western Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 60. ISBN 9780415378673. Orwell, George (1936). "Chapter 1". Keep the Aspidistra Flying. London: Victor Gollancz. Because how can you buy anything with a threepenny-bit? It isn't a coin, it's the answer to a riddle. "Pictures of Coins of the UK". "Coins of the UK - Three Pence". Hear the Tickey Bottle Tinkle, The Rotarian, June 1954, page 51 Southern Rhodesia, Past and Present, Chronicle Stationery and Book Store, 1945 Svenja O’Donnell (2014-03-18). "U.K. to Replace 1-Pound Coin With Secure 12-Edged Design". Bloomberg. "New 12-sided £1 coin unveiled". ITV. 2014-03-19. Hardy, Jack (4 November 2019). "£1 million worth of 'thruppences' to be sold to stop coin collecting dying out". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 November 2019. External links British Coins – Free information about British coins. Includes an online forum. History of the Threepence Threepence (Circulating), Coin Type from United Kingdom - Online Coin Club vte Coins of England vte Sterling coinage Decimal 1 / 2 p1p2p5p10p20p50p£1£2 Pre-decimal Quarter farthing ( 1 / 16 d.) (Ceylon)Third farthing ( 1 / 12 d.) (Malta)Half farthing ( 1 / 8 d.)Farthing ( 1 / 4 d.)Halfpenny ( 1 / 2 d.)Penny (1d.)Three halfpence (1+ 1 / 2 d.) (British Ceylon & British West Indies)Twopence (2d.)Threepence (3d.)Fourpence (4d.)Sixpence (6d.)Shilling (1/–)Fifteen pence (1/3d.) (Australia)Eighteen Pence(1/6d.) (British Ireland)Florin (2/–)Half crown (2/6d.)Thirty Pence(2/6d.) (British Ireland)Double florin (4/–)Crown (5/–)Six Shillings (6/-) (British Ireland)Quarter guinea (5/3d.)Third guinea (7/–)Half sovereign (10/–)Half guinea (10/6d.)Sovereign (£1)Guinea (£1/1/–)Double sovereign (£2)Two guineas (£2/2/–)Five pounds (£5)Five guineas (£5/5/–) Commemorative 3p (Tristan da Cunha)6p25p60p (Isle of Man)70p (Ascension Island)£5£10£20£25£50£100£200£500£1000Maundy money Bullion BritanniaQuarter sovereignHalf sovereignSovereignDouble sovereignQuintuple sovereignLunarThe Queen's BeastsLandmarks of Britain See also Sterling (currency)Sterling banknotesList of British banknotes and coinsList of British currenciesJubilee coinageOld Head coinageScottish coinageCoins of IrelandList of people on coins of the United Kingdom Categories: History of British coinagePre-decimalisation coins of the United KingdomCoins of Great Britain 1900 Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the year 1900. For other uses, see 1900 (disambiguation). 1900JanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecember Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century19th century 20th century Decades: 1880s1890s1900s 1910s1920s Years: 1897189818991900 190119021903 1900 by topic Humanities ArchaeologyArchitectureArtFilmLiterature PoetryMusic By country AustraliaBelgiumBrazilBulgariaCanadaChinaDenmarkFranceGermanyItalyNew ZealandNorwayPhilippinesPortugalRussiaSouth AfricaSwedenUnited KingdomUnited States Other topics Rail transportScienceSports Lists of leaders Sovereign statesSovereign state leadersTerritorial governorsReligious leadersLaw Birth and death categories BirthsDeaths Establishments and disestablishments categories EstablishmentsDisestablishments Works category Works vte 1900 in various calendars Gregorian calendar 1900 MCM Ab urbe condita 2653 Armenian calendar 1349 ԹՎ ՌՅԽԹ Assyrian calendar 6650 Baháʼí calendar 56–57 Balinese saka calendar 1821–1822 Bengali calendar 1307 Berber calendar 2850 British Regnal year 63 Vict. 1 – 64 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2444 Burmese calendar 1262 Byzantine calendar 7408–7409 Chinese calendar 己亥年 (Earth Pig) 4597 or 4390 — to — 庚子年 (Metal Rat) 4598 or 4391 Coptic calendar 1616–1617 Discordian calendar 3066 Ethiopian calendar 1892–1893 Hebrew calendar 5660–5661 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1956–1957 - Shaka Samvat 1821–1822 - Kali Yuga 5000–5001 Holocene calendar 11900 Igbo calendar 900–901 Iranian calendar 1278–1279 Islamic calendar 1317–1318 Japanese calendar Meiji 33 (明治33年) Javanese calendar 1829–1830 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 or 13 days Korean calendar 4233 Minguo calendar 12 before ROC 民前12年 Nanakshahi calendar 432 Thai solar calendar 2442–2443 Tibetan calendar 阴土猪年 (female Earth-Pig) 2026 or 1645 or 873 — to — 阳金鼠年 (male Iron-Rat) 2027 or 1646 or 874 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1900. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1900th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 900th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1900, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 17), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 13 days until February 28 (O.S. February 15), 2100. The year 1900 also marked the Year of the Rat on the Chinese calendar. Events January Main article: January 1900 January 2 – U.S. Secretary of State John Hay announces the Open Door Policy, to promote American trade with China. January 3 – The United States Census estimates the country's population to be about 70 million people. January 5 – Henry A. Rowland of Johns Hopkins University announces a theory about the cause of the Earth's magnetism. January 6 – Second Boer War: Boers attempt to end the Siege of Ladysmith, which leads to the Battle of Platrand. January 9 Italian club SS Lazio is founded in Rome. The first through passenger train goes from Cairo to Khartoum. January 14 Puccini's opera Tosca premieres in Rome, Italy. The U.S. Senate accepts the British-German Treaty of 1899, in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the American Samoa portion of the Samoan Islands. Second Boer War: Boers at Spion Kop, 1900 January 24 – Second Boer War – Battle of Spion Kop: Boer troops defeat the British Army. Boxer Soldiers January 27 – Boxer Rebellion: Foreign diplomats in Peking, Qing Dynasty China, demand that the Boxer rebels be disciplined. January 31 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of the Mat Salleh Rebellion in North Borneo, is shot dead in Tambunan. February Main article: February 1900 Plaque recording the location of the formation of the British Labour Party in 1900. February 5 – The United Kingdom and the United States sign a treaty for the building of a Central American shipping canal across Central America in Nicaragua. February 6 – The International Arbitration Court at The Hague is created, when the Netherlands' Senate ratifies an 1899 peace conference decree. February 8 – Second Boer War: British troops defeat the Boers at Ladysmith, South Africa. February 14 – Second Boer War: Battle of Paardeberg – 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State. February 15 – Second Boer War: The Siege of Kimberley is lifted. February 16 – The Southern Cross expedition led by Carsten Borchgrevink achieved a new Farthest South of 78° 50'S, making the first landing at the Great Ice Barrier.[1] February 17 – Second Boer War: Battle of Paardeberg – British troops defeat the Boers. February 27 The British Labour Party is officially established, at a meeting in the Congregational Memorial Hall in London, and Ramsay MacDonald is appointed as its first secretary. Second Boer War: British military leaders accept the unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé. FC Bayern, Germany's most successful football club, is founded in Munich. March Main article: March 1900 March 5 – Two U.S. Navy cruisers are sent to Central America to protect American interests in a dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. March 6 – A coal mine explosion in West Virginia, United States, kills 50 miners. March 14 Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovers Mendel's Laws of Heredity. The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing the United States currency on the gold standard.[2] March 16 – British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans purchases the land on Crete on which the ruins of the Palace of Knossos stand. He begins to unearth some of the palace three days later. March 18 – AFC Ajax, a successful football club in Netherlands, is founded in Amsterdam.[3] March 23 – Karl Landsteiner first reports his discovery of an accurate means for classifying a system of blood type, which will universally be referred to as the ABO blood group system[4] and for which he will be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930. March 27 – The arrival of a Russian naval fleet in Korea causes concern to the Imperial Japanese government. April Main article: April 1900 Exposition Universelle view in Paris April 4 – Queen Victoria arrives in Dublin on a rare visit. April 14 – The Exposition Universelle, a world's fair, opens in Paris. April 22 – Battle of Kousséri: French forces secure their domination of Chad. Warlord Rabih az-Zubayr is defeated and killed. May Main article: May 1900 May – American explorer Robert Peary is the first person to sight Kaffeklubben Island.[5] May 1 – Scofield Mine disaster: An explosion of blasting powder in a coal mine in Scofield, Utah, United States, kills 200 people. May 14 – The second Olympic Games, Paris 1900, open (as part of the Paris World Exhibition). May 17 Second Boer War: The British Army relieves the Siege of Mafeking. Boxer Rebellion: Boxers destroy three villages near Peking, and kill 60 Chinese Christians. L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is published in Chicago, the first of Baum's Oz books, chronicling the fictional Land of Oz for children. May 18 – The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga.[6] May 21 – Russia invades Manchuria. May 24 – Second Boer War: The British annex the Orange Free State, as the Orange River Colony. May 28 – Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers attack Belgians, in the Fengtai railway station. May 29 – N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad, is founded as Fort-Lamy, by French commander Émile Gentil. May 31 – Boxer Rebellion: Peacekeepers from various European countries arrive in China, where they join with Japanese forces. June Main article: June 1900 June 1 – American temperance agitator Carrie Nation begins her crusade to demolish saloons. June 5 – Second Boer War: British soldiers take Pretoria. June 14 – The Reichstag approves the second of the German Naval Laws allowing expansion of the Imperial German Navy. June 17 – Boxer Rebellion – Battle of Dagu Forts: Naval forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture the Taku Forts, on the Hai River estuary in China. June 20 – Boxer Rebellion: Boxers gather about 20,000 people near Peking, and kill hundreds of European citizens, including the German ambassador. June 25 – The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, where they have been sealed since the early 11th century. June 30 – Hoboken Docks fire: A wharf fire at the docks in Hoboken, New Jersey, owned by the North German Lloyd Steamship line, spreads to German passenger ships Saale, Main, and Bremen. The fire engulfs the adjacent piers and nearby ships, killing 326 people. July Main article: July 1900 July 2: First successful rigid airship flight by Zeppelin LZ 1 July 9: Federation of Australia enacted. July 2 – The first zeppelin airship flight, by Ferdinand Zeppelin's Zeppelin LZ 1 is carried out over Lake Constance, near Friedrichshafen, Germany. July 12 – The new German cruise liner, the SS Deutschland, breaks the record for the Blue Riband for the first time with an average speed of 22.4 knots (41.5 km/h). July 23–25 – The First Pan-African Conference is held in London. July 29 – King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci in Monza. August Main article: August 1900 August – The first Michelin Guide is published in France.[7][8] August 14 – Boxer Rebellion: An international contingent of troops, under British command, invades Peking and frees the European hostages. August 27 – The 1900 Galveston Hurricane forms, going on to kill 8,000 people, the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history, and dissipates on September 15. September Main article: September 1900 September 8 – The 1900 Galveston hurricane kills about 6,000–12,000 people. September 12 – Admiral Fredrik von Otter becomes Prime Minister of Sweden. September 13 – Philippine–American War – Battle of Pulang Lupa: Filipino resistance fighters defeat a detachment of American soldiers. September 17 – Philippine–American War – Battle of Mabitac: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat the Americans, under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham. October Main article: October 1900 October 9 – The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom. October 19 – Max Planck discovers the law of black-body radiation (Planck's law), by introducing the notion of light quanta, leading in 1905 to Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect and beginning the Quantum Revolution.[9] October 25 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal. November Main article: November 1900 November 6 – 1900 United States presidential election: Republican incumbent William McKinley is reelected by defeating Democratic challenger William Jennings Bryan in a rematch. November 29 – Herbert Kitchener succeeds Frederick Roberts as commander-in-chief of the British forces in South Africa and implements a scorched earth strategy.[10] December Main article: December 1900 December 14 – Max Planck announces his discovery of the law of black body emission, marking the birth of quantum physics. December 19 – Hopetoun Blunder: The first Governor-General of Australia John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, appoints Sir William Lyne premier of the new state of New South Wales, but he is unable to persuade other colonial politicians to join his government, and is forced to resign. December 27 – British human rights activist Emily Hobhouse arrives in Cape Town, South Africa. Date unknown Australasian prospector Albert Fuller Ellis identifies phosphate deposits on the Pacific Islands of Nauru and Banaba Island (Ocean Island). In New Haven, Connecticut, U.S., Louis Lassen of Louis' Lunch makes the first modern-day hamburger sandwich. Four out of every 1,000 residents of British India die of cholera each year.[11] Births Content January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December · Date unknown January Chiune Sugihara William Haines Queen Maria of Yugoslavia Hyman G. Rickover January 1 Mieczysław Batsch, Polish footballer (d. 1977) Paola Borboni, Italian film actress (d. 1995)[12] Xavier Cugat, Cuban bandleader (d. 1990)[13] Hub van Doorne, Dutch businessman (d. 1979) Chiune Sugihara, Japanese diplomat, saved Jewish WWII refugees (d. 1986)[14] January 2 William Haines, American actor (d. 1973) Mansaku Itami, Japanese film director (tuberculosis) (d. 1946) Józef Klotz, Polish footballer (d. 1941) Una Ledingham, British physician, known for research on diabetes in pregnancy (d. 1965)[15] January 3 Maurice Jaubert, French composer and soldier (d. 1940) Ernst Neubach, Austrian screenwriter, producer, and director (d. 1968) January 4 James Bond, American ornithologist (d. 1989) William Young, British World War I veteran (d. 2007) January 5 George Magrill, American film actor (d. 1952) Yves Tanguy, French painter (d. 1955) January 6 Queen Maria of Yugoslavia (1922-1934) (d. 1961)[16] John Sinclair, American actor (d. 1945) Emmanuel d'Astier de La Vigerie, French journalist and politician (d. 1969) January 8 Dorothy Adams, American character actress (d. 1988)[17] François de Menthon, French politician, professor of law (d. 1984) January 9 – Richard Halliburton, American adventurer and writer (d. 1939) January 10 – Jean Gehret, Swedish actor and director (d. 1956) January 11 – Lloyd French, American film director (d. 1950) January 13 – Shimizugawa Motokichi, Japanese sumo wrestler (d. 1967) January 16 Kiku Amino, Japanese author, translator (d. 1978)[18] Edith Frank, German-Dutch mother of Anne Frank (d. 1945)[19] January 18 – Wan Laiming, Chinese animator (d. 1997) January 20 Dorothy Annan, English painter, potter, and muralist (d. 1983) Colin Clive, British actor (d. 1937) January 22 Ernst Busch, German singer and actor (d. 1980) René Pellos, French artist (d. 1998) January 23 – William Ifor Jones, Welsh conductor, organist (d. 1988) January 24 – Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ukrainian geneticist, evolutionary biologist (d. 1975) January 26 – Karl Ristenpart, German conductor (d. 1967) January 27 – Hyman G. Rickover, American admiral (d. 1986) January 28 – Rajagopala Tondaiman, King of Pudukkottai (d. 1950) January 30 – Martita Hunt, Argentine-born British actress (d. 1969)[20] January 31 – Betty Parsons, American artist, art dealer and collector (d. 1982)[21] February Adlai Stevenson II Jeanne Aubert Halina Konopacka February 2 Anni Frind, German lyric soprano (d. 1987)[22] Józef Kowalski, Polish supercentenarian, one of the last surviving veterans of the Polish–Soviet War (d. 2013) February 4 – Jacques Prévert, French lyricist and author (d. 1977) February 5 – Adlai Stevenson, American politician (d. 1965) February 11 Ellen Broe, Danish nurse, pioneer in nursing education (d. 1994)[23] Hans-Georg Gadamer, German philosopher (d. 2002) Jōsei Toda, Japanese educator and activist (d. 1958) February 12 Vasily Chuikov, Marshal of the Soviet Union during WWII (d. 1982) Roger J. Traynor, American judge (d. 1983) February 13 – Barbara von Annenkoff, Russian-born German film and stage actress (d. 1979) February 21 Józef Adamek, Polish footballer (d. 1974) Jeanne Aubert, French singer and actress (d. 1988)[24] February 22 – Luis Buñuel, Spanish film director (d. 1983) February 24 – Irmgard Bartenieff, German-American dancer, physical therapist and leading pioneer of dance therapy (d. 1981) February 25 Richard Hollingshead, American inventor of the drive-in theatre (d. 1975) Illa Martin, German dendrologist, botanist, conservationist and dentist (d. 1988) Madame Satã, Brazilian drag performer and capoeirista (d. 1976) February 26 – Halina Konopacka, Polish athlete (d. 1989)[25] February 28 – Wolfram Hirth, German pilot and aircraft designer (d. 1959) March Carel Willink Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Sir John McEwen Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester March 2 – Kurt Weill, German-American composer (d. 1950) March 3 Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, veteran Indian Independence activist (d. 1966)[26] Edna Best, British stage and film actress, appeared on early television in 1938 (d. 1974)[27] Ruby Dandridge, African-American film, radio actress (d. 1987) March 4 – Herbert Biberman, American screenwriter, film director (d. 1971) March 5 Lilli Jahn, German-Jewish doctor (d. 1944)[28] Johanna Langefeld, German guard, supervisor of three Nazi concentration camps (d. 1974) March 7 Lorimer Dods, Australian medical pioneer (d. 1981) Leslie Hutchinson, Grenada-born cabaret singer (d. 1969) Fritz London, German-Jewish physicist (d. 1954) Carel Willink, Dutch painter (d. 1983) March 8 Howard Aiken, American computing pioneer (d. 1973) Henry Abel Smith, 17th Governor of Queensland (d. 1993) March 9 – Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, Italian prince (d. 1948) March 10 – Violet Brown, Jamaican supercentenarian, oldest Jamaican ever (d. 2017)[29] March 11 Hanna Bergas, German teacher who helped rescue Jewish children during WWII (d. 1987) Alfredo Dinale, Italian Olympic cyclist (d. 1976) March 12 Rinus van den Berge, Dutch athlete (d. 1972) Sylvi Kekkonen, Finnish writer and wife of President of Finland Urho Kekkonen (d. 1974)[30] Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, 19th President of Colombia (d. 1975) March 13 Queen Sālote Tupou III of Tonga, (d. 1965)[31] Andrée Bosquet, Belgian painter (d. 1980)[32] Giorgos Seferis, Greek poet, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 1971) March 16 – Mencha Karnicheva, Macedonian revolutionary, assassin (d. 1964)[33] March 17 – Manuel Plaza, Chilean athlete (d. 1969) March 18 – Hanne Sobek, German footballer (d. 1989) March 19 Carmen Carbonell, Spanish stage, film actress (d. 1988)[34] Frédéric Joliot-Curie, French physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 1958)[35] March 20 – Amelia Chopitea Villa, Bolivia's first female physician (d. 1942)[36] March 23 – Erich Fromm, German-born psychologist, philosopher who lived in Cuernavaca, Mexico (d. 1980)[37] March 26 – Angela Maria Autsch, German nun, died in Auschwitz helping Jewish prisoners (d. 1941)[38] March 29 Sir John McEwen, 18th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1980)[39] Oscar Elton Sette, American fisheries scientist (d. 1972) March 30 – Santos Urdinarán, Uruguayan footballer (d. 1979) March 31 – Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (d. 1974) April Spencer Tracy Wolfgang Pauli Charles Francis Richter April 1 – Stefanie Clausen, Danish Olympic diver (d. 1981)[40] April 3 Camille Chamoun, 7th president of Lebanon (d. 1987) Albert Ingham, English mathematician (d. 1967) Albert Walsh, Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1958) April 5 Josefina Passadori, Argentinian writer and poet (d. 1987) Spencer Tracy, American actor (d. 1967) April 8 – Marie Byles, Australian solicitor (d. 1979)[41] April 10 Arnold Orville Beckman, American chemist and investor (d. 2004) Jean Duvieusart, Belgian politician (d. 1977) April 11 – Sándor Márai, Hungarian writer and journalist (d. 1989) April 13 – Sorcha Boru, American potter, ceramic sculptor (d. 2006) April 14 – Salvatore Baccaloni, Italian operatic bass, buffo artist, and actor. (d. 1969) April 16 – Polly Adler, Russian-American author, madam (d. 1962)[42] April 18 – Bertha Isaacs, Bahamian teacher, tennis player, politician and women's rights activist (d. 1997)[43] April 19 Iracema de Alencar, Brazilian film actress (d. 1978) Rhea Silberta, Yiddish songwriter, singing teacher (d. 1959) April 20 – Fred Raymond, Austrian composer (d. 1954) April 21 – Hans Fritzsche, German Nazi official (d. 1953) April 22 – Nellie Beer, British politician, Lord Mayor of Manchester (1966–67) (d. 1988)[44] April 24 – Elizabeth Goudge, English writer (d. 1984)[45][46] April 25 – Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958) April 26 Roberto Arlt, Argentine writer (d. 1942) Eva Aschoff, German bookbinder, calligrapher (d. 1969)[47] Charles Francis Richter, American geophysicist, inventor (d. 1985) April 27 – August Koern, Estonian statesman, diplomat (d. 1989) April 28 Alice Berry, Australian activist (d. 1978)[48] Maurice Thorez, French Communist leader (d. 1964) April 29 Concha de Albornoz, Spanish feminist, intellectual, exiled during the Spanish Civil War (d. 1972) Amelia Best, Australian politician, one of the first women elected to the Tasmanian House of Assembly (d. 1979)[49] April 30 David Manners, Canadian-American actor (d. 1998) Cecily Lefort, English World War II heroine, spy for the SOE (d. 1945)[50][self-published source?] May Cai Chang Juan Arvizu Lucile Godbold May 1 – Ignazio Silone, Italian author (d. 1978) May 2 – A. W. Lawrence, British leading authority on classical sculpture and architecture (d. 1991) May 5 Helen Redfield, American geneticist (d. 1988)[51] Harold Tamblyn-Watts, British cartoonist (d. 1999) May 6 – Zheng Ji, Chinese nutritionist, biochemist (d. 2010) May 9 – Maria Malicka, Polish stage, film actress (d. 1992)[52] May 10 Beryl May Dent, English mathematical physicist (d. 1977)[53] Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, British-American astronomer, astrophysicist (d. 1979)[54] May 11 – Thomas H. Robbins Jr., American admiral (d. 1972) May 12 – Helene Weigel, Austrian actress (d. 1971)[55] May 13 – Karl Wolff, German SS functionary and war criminal (d. 1984) May 14 – Cai Chang, Chinese politician, women's rights activist (d. 1990)[56] May 15 – Ida Rhodes, American mathematician, pioneer in computer programming (d. 1986)[57] May 22 Juan Arvizu, Mexican operatic tenor and bolero vocalist (d. 1985) Vina Bovy, Belgian operatic soprano (d. 1983) May 23 – Hans Frank, German Nazi official (executed 1946) May 24 – Sonia Rosemary Keppel, British baroness, grandmother of Queen Camilla (d. 1986)Sonia Rosemary Keppel May 26 – Karin Juel, Swedish singer, actor and writer (d. 1976) May 27 Lotte Toberentz, German overseer of the Nazi Uckermark concentration camp (d. unknown)[58] Uładzimir Žyłka, Belarusian poet (d. 1933) May 28 – Tommy Ladnier, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1939) May 29 – David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, British politician, lawyer and judge (d. 1967) May 31 – Lucile Godbold, American Olympic athlete (d. 1981)[59] June Dennis Gabor Antoine de Saint-Exupéry June 3 Adelaide Ames, American astronomer (d. 1932)[60] Leo Picard, German-born Israeli geologist (d. 1997) June 4 – George Watkins, American baseball player (d. 1970) June 5 – Dennis Gabor, Hungarian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979) June 7 Glen Gray, American saxophonist (d. 1963) Frederick Terman, American electrical engineer, professor (d. 1982) June 8 – Lena Baker, African-American maid executed for capital murder, pardoned posthumously (d. 1945)[61] June 11 Leopoldo Marechal, Argentine writer (d. 1970) Carmen Polo, 1st Lady of Meirás, widow of Francisco Franco (d. 1988) June 14 Ruth Nanda Anshen, American writer, editor and philosopher (d. 2003)[62] June Walker, American stage, film actress (d. 1966) June 15 – Paul Mares, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1949) June 17 Martin Bormann, German Nazi official (d. 1945) Evelyn Irons, Scottish journalist, war correspondent (d. 2000)[63] June 18 – Vlasta Vraz, Czech-American relief worker, editor and fundraiser (d. 1989) June 21 – Choi Yong-kun, North Korean general, defense minister (d. 1976) June 22 Russell Vis, American wrestler (d. 1990) Henriette Alimen, French paleontologist, geologist (d. 1996)[64] June 23 – Blanche Noyes, American aviator, winner of the 1936 Bendix Trophy Race (d. 1981)[65] June 24 Juan Carlos Caballero Vega, Mexican revolutionary (d. 2010) Raphael Lemkin, Polish-born international lawyer (d. 1959) Bernard D. H. Tellegen, Dutch electrical engineer (d. 1990) June 25 Marta Abba, Italian actress (d. 1988)[66] Zinaida Aksentyeva, Ukrainian/Soviet astronomer (d. 1969) Georgia Hale, American silent film actress, real estate investor (d. 1985)[67] Philip D'Arcy Hart, British medical researcher, pioneer in tuberculosis treatment (d. 2006) Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, born Prince Louis of Battenberg, English naval officer and last Viceroy of India (assassinated) (d. 1979) June 26 John Benham, British long-distance runner (d. 1990) Jo Spier, Dutch artist and illustrator (d. 1978) June 27 – Dixie Brown, St Lucian-born British boxer (d. 1957) June 29 – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot, writer (d. 1944) June 30 – Alf Ihlen, Norwegian industrialist (d. 2006) July Alessandro Blasetti Bernardus Johannes Alfrink Eyvind Johnson Teresa Noce July 2 Joe Bennett, American baseball player (d. 1987) Sophie Harris, English costume, scenic designer for theatre and opera (d. 1966) July 3 Alessandro Blasetti, Italian film director and screenwriter (d. 1987) Gordon MacQuarrie, American author and journalist (d. 1956) July 4 Belinda Dann, indigenous Australian who was one of the Stolen Generation, reunited with family aged 107 (d. 2007)[68][69] Robert Desnos, French poet (d. 1945) Nellie Mae Rowe, African-American folk artist (d. 1982)[70] July 5 Richard K. Webel, American landscape architect (d. 2000) Reed Howes, American model (d. 1964) July 6 Frederica Sagor Maas, American playwright, essayist, and author (d. 2012)[71] Paul Métivier, Canadian World War I veteran (d. 2004) Elfriede Wever, German Olympic runner (d. 1941) July 7 Maria Bard, German stage, silent film actress (d. 1944) Frank W. Cyr, American educator, author (d. 1995) Earle E. Partridge, American general (d. 1990) July 9 – Joseph LaShelle, American cinematographer (d. 1989) July 10 – Evelyn Laye, English actress (d. 1996)[72] July 11 – Lily Eberwein, Sarawakian nationalist, women's rights activist (d. 1980)[73] July 13 Cornelius Keefe, American actor (d. 1972) George Lewis, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1968) July 15 – Enrique Cadícamo, Argentine tango lyricist, poet and novelist (d. 1999) July 16 – Mumon Yamada, Japanese Rinzai religious leader (d. 1988) July 20 – Hunter Lane, American baseball player (d. 1994) July 21 – Isadora Bennett, American theatre manager, modern dance publicity agent (d. 1980) July 23 Julia Davis Adams, American author, journalist (d. 1993)[74] John Babco*ck, last surviving Canadian World War I veteran (d. 2010) Inger Margrethe Boberg, Danish folklore researcher, writer (d. 1957)[75] Prince Kaya Tsunenori (d. 1978) July 26 – Sarah Kafrit, Israeli politician, teacher (d. 1983)[76] July 28 – Lady Dorothy Macmillan, spouse of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1966) July 29 Mary V. Austin, Australian community worker, political activist (d. 1986)[77] Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1976) Teresa Noce, Italian labor leader, activist, and journalist (d. 1980)[78] August Arturo Umberto Illia Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Cecil Howard Green Hans Adolf Krebs August 3 – Ernie Pyle, American journalist (d. 1945) August 4 Arturo Umberto Illia, 34th President of Argentina (d. 1983) Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, queen consort of George VI (d. 2002)[79] Nabi Tajima, Japanese supercentenarian, last surviving person born in the 19th century[80] (d. 2018) August 6 Cecil Howard Green, British-born geophysicist, businessman (d. 2003) Grigori Shtern, Soviet general (d. 1941) August 8 – Alexis Minotis, Greek actor, stage director (d. 1990) August 9 – Charles Farrell, American actor (d. 1990) August 10 – Arthur Espie Porritt, New Zealand politician, athlete (d. 1994) August 11 Alexander Mosolov, Russian composer (d. 1973) Charley Paddock, American sprinter (d. 1943) Philip Phillips, American archaeologist (d. 1994) August 14 Margret Boveri, German journalist, recipient of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (d. 1975)[81] Benita von Falkenhayn, German baroness, spy for the Second Polish Republic pre-WWII (d. 1935) August 15 – Estelle Brody, American silent film actress (d. 1995)[82] August 16 – Ida Browne, Australian geologist, palaeontologist (d. 1976)[83] August 17 Mary Paik Lee, Korean-American writer (d. 1995)[84] Vivienne de Watteville, British travel writer and adventurer (d. 1957)[85] August 18 Glenn Albert Black, American archaeologist (d. 1964) Ruth Norman, American religious leader (d. 1993)[86] August 19 Colleen Moore, American actress (d. 1988)[87] Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher (d. 1976) Dorothy Burr Thompson, American archaeologist, art historian (d. 2001)[88] August 22 Lisy Fischer, Swiss-born pianist, child prodigy (d. 1999)[89] Sergey Ozhegov, Russian lexicographer (d. 1964) August 23 Frances Adaskin, Canadian pianist (d. 2001)[90] Ernst Krenek, Austrian-American composer (d. 1991) August 25 Isobel Hogg Kerr Beattie, Scottish architect (d. 1970)[91] Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, German physician, biochemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1981) August 26 Margaret Utinsky, American nurse, recipient of the Medal of Freedom (d. 1970)[92] Hellmuth Walter, German engineer, inventor (d. 1980) September Urho Kekkonen Miguel Alemán Valdés September 3 – Urho Kekkonen, 8th President of Finland (d. 1986) September 5 – Grace Eldering, American public health scientist, co-developed vaccine for whooping cough (d. 1988)[93] September 6 – W. A. C. Bennett, Canadian politician (d. 1979) September 8 – Tilly Devine, English-Australian organised crime boss (d. 1970)[94] September 12 – Martha Atwell, American radio director (d. 1949)[95][96] September 17 J. Willard Marriott, American entrepreneur and founder of Marriott International (d. 1985) Lena Frances Edwards, African-American physician, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (d. 1986)[97] Martha Ostenso, Canadian screenwriter, novelist (d. 1963)[98] Hedwig Ross, New Zealand-born educator, political activist and founding member of the Communist Party of New Zealand (d. 1971)[99] September 18 Thomas Darden, American rear admiral, 37th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1961) Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, 1st prime minister of Mauritius (d. 1985) September 20 – Uuno Klami, Finnish composer (d. 1961) September 22 – Paul Hugh Emmett, American chemical engineer (d. 1985) September 23 – Louise Nevelson, Ukrainian-born American sculptor (d. 1988) September 26 – Suzanne Belperron, French jewellery designer (d. 1983)[100] September 27 – Miguel Alemán Valdés, 46th President of Mexico, 1946-1952 (d. 1983)[101] October Bing Xin Helen Hayes Jean Arthur Ismail al-Azhari Srinagarindra Douglas Jardine Ragnar Granit October 1 – Tom Goddard, English cricketer (d. 1966) October 2 – Olive Ann Alcorn, American dancer, model, and silent film actress (d. 1975)[102] October 5 Bing Xin, Chinese author, poet, known for her contributions to children's literature (d. 1999)[103] Margherita Bontade, Italian politician (d. 1992)[104] October 6 Vivion Brewer, American activist, desegregationist (d. 1991)[105] Stan Nichols, English cricketer (d. 1961) October 7 – Heinrich Himmler, German Nazi official, SS head (d. 1945) October 10 – Helen Hayes, American actress (d. 1993)[106] October 11 - Boris Yefimov, Soviet political cartoonist (d. 2008) October 16 – Edward Ardizzone, English painter, printmaker and author (d. 1979) October 17 – Jean Arthur, American actress (d. 1991)[107] October 18 Sarah Bavly, Dutch-Israeli nutritionist, author and educator (d. 1993)[108] Evelyn Berckman, American author, known for her detective and Gothic horror novels (d. 1978)[109][110] October 19 Erna Berger, German coloratura lyric soprano (d. 1990) Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991) October 20 – Ismail al-Azhari, 2nd Prime Minister of Sudan, 3rd President of Sudan (d. 1969) October 21 Andrée Boisson, French Olympic fencer (d. 1973) Princess Mother Srinagarindra of Thailand (d. 1995) October 23 – Douglas Jardine, British cricketeer (d. 1958) October 25 – Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian suffragist and women's rights activist (d. 1978) October 26 Ibrahim Abboud, 4th prime minister, 1st president of Sudan (d. 1983) Karin Boye, Swedish poet, novelist, known for her dystopian sci-fi novel Kallocain (d. 1941)[111] October 30 Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1991) Agustín Lara, Mexican composer and interpreter of songs and boleros (d. 1970)[112] October 31 – Asbjørg Borgfelt, Norwegian sculptor (d. 1976) November Margaret Mitchell Aaron Copland Eliška Junková Håkan Malmrot November 2 – Carola Neher, German actress and singer (d. 1942) November 3 - Adolf Dassler, Cobbler, entrepreneur and inventor who founded Adidas (d. 1978) November 4 – Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Romanian communist activist, sociologist (d. 1954) November 5 Martin Dies Jr., American politician (d. 1972) Natalie Schafer, American actress (d. 1991) Ethelwynn Trewavas, British ichthyologist, over a dozen fish species named in her honor (d. 1993)[113] November 6 Ida Lou Anderson, American orator, professor and radio broadcasting pioneer (d. 1941)[114] Hugh Prosser, American actor (d. 1952) November 8 – Margaret Mitchell, American writer (Gone With The Wind) (d. 1949)[115] November 10 – Rudolf Vogel, German film and television actor (d. 1967) November 11 Maria Babanova, Russian stage, film actress (d. 1983) Frederick Lawton, 9th Director of the Office of Management and Budget (d. 1975) November 13 David Marshall Williams, American inventor (d. 1975) Samuel King Allison, American physicist (d. 1965) November 14 – Aaron Copland, American composer (d. 1990) November 16 Eliška Junková, Czechoslovakian automobile racer (d. 1994)[116] Nikolai Pogodin, Soviet playwright (d. 1962) November 19 – Anna Seghers, German writer (d. 1983)[117] November 20 Florieda Batson, American hurdler, captain of the United States team at the 1922 Women's Olympics (d. 1996) Helen Bradley, English painter (d. 1979)[118] November 21 – Bettina Warburg, German-American psychiatrist, professor (d. 1990) November 22 – Tom Macdonald, Welsh journalist, novelist (d. 1980) November 25 – Rudolf Höß, German Nazi official (d. 1947) November 26 – Anna Maurizio, Swiss biologist, known for her study of bees (d. 1993)[119] November 27 – Jovette Bernier, Canadian journalist, author, and radio show host (d. 1981)[120] November 28 – Mary Bothwell, Canadian classical vocalist, painter (d. 1985)[121] November 29 Mildred Gillars, American broadcaster (Axis Sally), employed by Nazi Germany to disseminate propaganda during WWII (d. 1988)[122] Håkan Malmrot, Swedish swimmer (d. 1987) November 30 – Luigi Stipa, Italian aeronautical, hydraulic, and civil engineer and aircraft designer (d. 1992) December Agnes Moorehead December 2 Elisa Godínez Gómez de Batista, First Lady of Cuba (1940-1944) (d. 1993) Herta Hammerbacher, German landscape architect, professor (d. 1985)[123] December 3 Karna Maria Birmingham, Australian artist, illustrator and print maker (d. 1987)[124] Ulrich Inderbinen, Swiss mountain guide (d. 2004) Richard Kuhn, Austrian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1967)[125] December 6 – Agnes Moorehead, American actress, best known for her role in Bewitched (d. 1974)[126] December 7 Kateryna Vasylivna Bilokur, Ukrainian folk artist (d. 1961)[127] Christian Matras, Faroese linguist, poet (d. 1988) December 10 – Dominic Costa, Australian politician (d. 1976) December 11 – Hermína Týrlová, Czechoslovakian animator, screenwriter, and film director (d. 1993)[128] December 12 – Sammy Davis Sr., American dancer (d. 1988) December 16 – Rudolf Diels, German Nazi civil servant, Gestapo chief (d. 1957) December 17 Mary Cartwright, British mathematician, one of the first people to analyze a dynamical system with chaos (d. 1998)[129] Katina Paxinou, Greek actress (d. 1973)[130] December 19 – Margaret Brundage, American illustrator, known for illustrating the pulp magazine Weird Tales (d. 1976)[131] December 20 Lissy Arna, German film actress (d. 1964) Marinus van der Goes van Naters, Dutch politician (d. 2005) December 22 Alan Bush, British composer, pianist and conductor (d. 1995) Ofelia Uribe de Acosta, Colombian author, editor, and suffragist (d. 1988)[132] December 23 Merle Barwis, American-Canadian supercentenarian (d. 2014)[80] Marie Bell, French actress, stage director (d. 1985) José de León Toral, assassin of Mexican President Álvaro Obregón (d. 1929) December 24 Joey Smallwood, first Premier of Newfoundland & Labrador (d. 1991) Hussein Al Oweini, 18th prime minister of Lebanon (d. 1971) Hawayo Takata, Japanese-American teacher, master practitioner of Reiki (d. 1980) December 25 – Antoni Zygmund, Polish mathematician (d. 1992) December 26 – Evelyn Bark, leading member of the British Red Cross, first female recipient of the CMG (d. 1993)[133] Date unknown Robina Addis, early British professional psychiatric social worker (d. 1986)[134] Margaret Altmann, German-American biologist, specialist in animal husbandry and psychobiology (d. 1984)[135] Juanita Ángeles, Filipina silent film actress (d. unknown) Hattie Moseley Austin, African-American entrepreneur, restaurateur (d. 1998)[136] Louella Ballerino, American fashion designer, known for her work in sportswear (d. 1978)[137] Natalya Bilikhodze, Russian Romanov impostor falsely claiming to be Grand duch*ess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 2000)[138] Ruth Bonner, Soviet Communist activist, sentenced to labor camp during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge (d. 1987)[139][140] Anna Borkowska (Sister Bertranda), Polish nun, prioress who hid 17 Jews in her monastery during WWII (d. 1988) Grace Hartman, Canadian social activist, politician, and first female mayor of Sudbury, Ontario (d. 1998)[141] Rubén Jaramillo, Mexican peasant leader (d. 1962)[142] Daudo Okelo, Ugandan Roman Catholic martyr and saint (b. c. 1900; d. 1918) Bella Reay, English footballer (d. unknown) Virginia Frances Sterrett, American artist, illustrator (d. 1931)[143] Yung Fung-shee, Hong Kong philanthropist (d. 1972) Deaths January–June John Ruskin Gottlieb Daimler Mary Kingsley Princess Josephine of Baden January 5 – William A. Hammond, American military physician, neurologist, and 11th Surgeon General of the United States Army (1862–1864) (b. 1828) January 11 – James Martineau, English religious philosopher (b. 1805)[144] January 16 – S. M. I. Henry, American evangelist (b. 1839) January 20 – John Ruskin, English writer, artist, and social critic (b. 1819) January 31 – John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, Scottish nobleman, boxer (b. 1844) February 18 – Clinton L. Merriam, American politician (b. 1824) February 23 – William Butterfield, British architect (b. 1814) March 6 Carl Bechstein, German piano maker (b. 1826)[145] Gottlieb Daimler, German inventor, automotive pioneer (b. 1834) March 7 – Rachel Lloyd, American chemist (b. 1839) March 10 – Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann, Danish composer (b. 1805) March 18 – Hjalmar Kiærskou, Danish botanist (b. 1835) March 28 – Piet Joubert, Boer politician, military commander (b. 1834) March 29 – Cyrus K. Holliday, cofounder of Topeka, Kansas, 1st president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (b. 1826) April 2 – Gustaf Åkerhielm, 6th prime minister of Sweden (b. 1833) April 5 Joseph Bertrand, French mathematician (b. 1822) Maria Louise Eve, American author (b. 1848) Osman Nuri Pasha, Ottoman military leader (b. 1832) April 7 – Frederic Edwin Church, American landscape painter (b. 1826) April 12 – James Richard co*cke, American physician, homeopath, and pioneer hypnotherapist (b. 1863) April 17 – George Curry, Wild West robber (Wild Bunch) (shot) (b. 1871) April 19 – James Dawson, Australian activist (b. 1806) April 21 – Vikramatji Khimojiraj, Indian ruler (b. 1819) April 22 – Amédée-François Lamy, French soldier (b. 1858) (killed in battle) April 24 – George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, British politician (b. 1823) April 30 – Casey Jones, American railway engineer (b. 1864) May 1 – Mihály Munkácsy, Hungarian painter (b. 1844) May 2 – Seweryn Morawski, Roman Catholic prelate (b. 1819) May 9 – Carit Etlar (Carl Brosbøll), Danish author (b. 1816) May 18 – Félix Ravaisson-Mollien, French philosopher (b. 1813) May 28 – Sir George Grove, English music writer (b. 1820) June 2 – Samori Ture, West African empire-builder (b. 1830) June 3 – Mary Kingsley, English explorer, writer (b. 1862)[146] June 5 – Stephen Crane, American author (b. 1871) June 11 – Belle Boyd, American Confederate spy, actress (b. 1843) June 19 – Princess Josephine of Baden (b. 1813) July–December King Umberto I Kuroda Kiyotaka Friedrich Nietzsche Sir Arthur Sullivan Oscar Wilde July 5 – Henry Barnard, American educationalist (b. 1811) July 8 – Henry D. Cogswell, American philanthropist (b. 1820) July 9 – Gregorio Grassi, Italian Franciscan friar, Roman Catholic martyr and saint (b. 1833) July 26 – Nicolae Crețulescu, 2-time prime minister of Romania (b. 1812) July 29 – King Umberto I of Italy (assassinated) (b. 1844) July 30 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Queen Victoria (b. 1844)[147] August 1 – Rafael Molina Sanchez, Spanish bullfighter (b. 1841) August 4 – Étienne Lenoir, Belgian engineer (b. 1822) August 7 – Wilhelm Liebknecht, German Social Democratic politician (b. 1826)[148] August 8 Emil Škoda, Czech engineer and industrialist (b. 1839) József Szlávy, 6th prime minister of Hungary (b. 1818) August 10 – Charles Russell, Baron Russell of Killowen, Lord Chief Justice of England (b. 1832) August 12 – Wilhelm Steinitz, Austrian-born chess player, first undisputed World Champion (b. 1836) August 13 – Vladimir Solovyov, Russian philosopher and poet (b. 1853) August 16 – José Maria de Eça de Queirós, Portuguese writer (b. 1845) August 23 – Kuroda Kiyotaka, Japanese politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1840) August 25 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher, writer (b. 1844) September 5 – Arthur Sewall, American politician, industrialist (b. 1835) September 19 – Belle Archer, American actress (b. 1859) September 23 William Marsh Rice, American philanthropist, university founder (b. 1816) Arsenio Martínez-Campos, Spanish general, revolutionary, and Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1831) September 29 – Samuel Fenton Cary, American politician (b. 1814) October 15 – Zdeněk Fibich, Czech composer (b. 1850) October 19 – Sir Roderick Cameron, Canadian shipping magnate (b. 1825) October 22 – John Sherman, American politician (b.1823) October 28 – Max Müller, German philologist, Orientalist (b. 1823) November 22 – Sir Arthur Sullivan, English composer (b. 1842) November 26 – Méry Laurent, French artist's muse, model (b. 1849) November 30 – Oscar Wilde, Irish writer (b. 1854)[149] December 4 – Aquileo Parra, 11th President of Colombia (b. 1825) December 14 – Paddy Ryan, Irish-American boxer, former world's heavyweight champion (b. 1851) December 21 – Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, Prussian field marshal (b. 1810) World population World population: 1,640,000,000 Africa: 133,000,000 Asia: 947,000,000 Japan: c. 45,000,000 Europe: 408,000,000 Latin America: 74,000,000 Northern America: 82,000,000 Oceania: 6,000,000 References Mill, Hugh Robert (1905). 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Further reading Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events...1900 (1901), vast compendium of data; global coverage online edition Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century 1900-1933, Vol. 1 (1997) pp 7–35; global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare. Herbert C. Fyfe, Pearson's Magazine, July 1900: "How Will The World End?" vte Events by month 1904 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1903 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1902 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1901 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1900 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1899 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1898 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1897 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1896 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 1895 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Category: 1900 Queen Victoria Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Featured article Page semi-protected Listen to this article From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation). "Victoria I" redirects here. For the first Victoria game by Paradox Entertainment, see Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun. Victoria Victoria wearing a lace cap and diamond jewellery Portrait by Alexander Bassano, 1882 Queen of the United Kingdom Reign 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Coronation 28 June 1838 Predecessor William IV Successor Edward VII Empress of India Reign 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877 Predecessor Position established Successor Edward VII Born Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 24 May 1819 Kensington Palace, London, England Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81) Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England Burial 4 February 1901 Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (m. 1840; died 1861) Issue Victoria, German Empress Edward VII Alice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by Rhine Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg House Hanover Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Religion Protestant[a] Signature Cursive signature of Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 216 days, which was longer than any of her predecessors, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. Victoria died in 1901 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, at the age of 81. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Early life Birth and ancestry Victoria as a child with her mother, after William Beechey Portrait by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823 Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Until 1817, King George's only legitimate grandchild was Edward's niece Princess Charlotte of Wales, the daughter of George, Prince Regent (who would become George IV). Charlotte's death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on Prince Edward and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke of Kent married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower and later the first king of Belgium. The Duke and duch*ess of Kent's only child, Victoria was born at 4:15 a.m. on Monday 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[b] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Prince Regent.[2] At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, Duke of York; William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent.[3] Prince George had no surviving children, and Prince Frederick had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William married in 1818, in a joint ceremony with his brother Edward, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. She was fourth in line while William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth, lived, from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821.[4] Heir presumptive Prince Frederick died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830; their next surviving brother succeeded to the throne as William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the duch*ess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6] Portrait with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833 Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the duch*ess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the duch*ess's lover.[8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[9] The duch*ess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[10] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[11] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[12] but she spoke only English at home.[13] Victoria's sketch of herself Self-portrait, 1835 In 1830, the duch*ess and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[14] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[15] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[16] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[17] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[18] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[19] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the duch*ess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[20] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[21] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[22] By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert,[23] the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[24] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[25] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[26] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[27] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[28] Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser",[29] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[30] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[31] Accession and marriage See also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and Wedding dress of Queen Victoria Drawing of Conyngham and Howley on their knees in front of Victoria Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley. Painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887 Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[c] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[32] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[33] Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law, women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited the British throne, her father's unpopular younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was Victoria's heir presumptive until she had a child.[34] Victoria wears her crown and holds a sceptre. Coronation portrait by George Hayter At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. He at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced monarch, who relied on him for advice.[35] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[36] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[37] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[38] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[39] At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[41] Victoria believed the rumours.[42] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the duch*ess of Kent in the Kensington System.[44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually acquiesced, and was found to be a virgin.[45] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[48] In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[49] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the "bedchamber crisis", Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[50] Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George Hayter Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[52] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[53] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[54] Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness—really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before—was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![56] Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[59] Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840 During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[60] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[64] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[65] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward, Alice, Alfred, Helena, Louise, Arthur, Leopold and Beatrice.[66] The household was largely run by Victoria's childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[67] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[68] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter Victoria's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[69] Domestic and public life Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843 On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to bait Francis into taking a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[70] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840.[71] Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[72] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[73] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[74] Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[75] Victoria cuddling her daughter next to her Earliest known photograph of the Queen, here with her eldest daughter, Princess Victoria, c. 1845[76] In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[77] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[78] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[79][80] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016)[81] to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[82] and supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[83] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[84] By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the free-trade oriented liberal conservative "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[85] Victoria's British prime ministers Year Prime Minister (party) 1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative) 1846 Lord John Russell (Whig) 1852 (February) Earl of Derby (Conservative) 1852 (December) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite) 1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 1858 Earl of Derby (Conservative) 1859 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 1865 Earl Russell, Lord John Russell (Liberal) 1866 Earl of Derby (Conservative) 1868 (February) Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative) 1868 (December) William Gladstone (Liberal) 1874 Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield (Conservative) 1880 William Gladstone (Liberal) 1885 Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) 1886 (February) William Gladstone (Liberal) 1886 (July) Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) 1892 William Gladstone (Liberal) 1894 Earl of Rosebery (Liberal) 1895 Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) See List of prime ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and overseas premiers Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[86] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at Château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[87] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[88] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[89] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[90] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[91] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[92] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[93] Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[94] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[95] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[96] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby.[97] Victoria, dressed in black, is seated and holding her infant daughter. Prince Albert and their other children stand around her. Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria, and Helena In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[98] Victoria may have had postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[66] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[99] In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[100] Napoleon III, Britain's closest ally as a result of the Crimean War,[66] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[101] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[102] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[103] This marked the first time that a reigning British monarch had been to Paris in over 400 years.[104] Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859 On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[105] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[106] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French Navy.[107] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[108] Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17.[109] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[110] The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[111] Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor.[66] Widowhood and isolation Photograph by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860 In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[112] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[113] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[114] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[115] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[116] Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[117] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[118] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[119] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[120] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[121] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[122] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[123] Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[124] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[125] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[126] Victoria on a horse With John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[127] Rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and some referred to the Queen as "Mrs. Brown".[128] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[129] Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[130] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[131] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[132] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[133] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[134] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[135] In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[136] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[137] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[138] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[139] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[140] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[141] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[142] On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[143] and a birching.[144] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[145] Empress of India Wikisource has original text related to this article: Proclamation by the Queen in Council, to the princes, chiefs, and people of India After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[146] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[147] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[148] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[148] Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[149] In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[150] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[151] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[152] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[153] On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[154] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[155] Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[156] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[157] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[158] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[159] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[160] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[161] Victorian farthing, 1884 On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[162] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Gordon Chesney Wilson and another schoolboy from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[163] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[164] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[165] On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[166] John Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[167] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[168] The manuscript was destroyed.[169] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[170] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[171] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her.[172] Extent of the British Empire in 1898 Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[173] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[174] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[175] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[176] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again.[177] Golden and Diamond Jubilees The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk. With the Munshi Abdul Karim In 1887, the British Empire celebrated Victoria's Golden Jubilee. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[178] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[179] Two days later on 23 June,[180] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu and acting as a clerk.[181][182][183] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[184] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[185] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[186] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[187] Victoria's eldest daughter became empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed a little over three months later, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany would go unfulfilled, as Wilhelm was a firm believer in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[188] Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[189] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[190] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[191] Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress Official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. Downey On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[192] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[193] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[194] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[195] The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[196] Declining health and death Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900 Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[197] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[198] Portrait by Heinrich von Angeli, 1899 In July 1900, Victoria's second son, Alfred ("Affie"), died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[199] Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her disabled, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[200] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[201] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[202] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid on her bed as a last request.[203] She died aged 81 on 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, in the presence of her eldest son, Albert Edward, and grandson Wilhelm II. Albert Edward immediately succeeded as Edward VII.[204] Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[66] and white instead of black.[205] On 25 January, Edward VII and Wilhelm II, together with Prince Arthur, helped lift her body into the coffin.[206] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[207] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her physician and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[66][208] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of Brown's mother, which Brown gave Victoria in 1883.[66] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, at Windsor Great Park.[209] With a reign of 63 years, seven months, and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history, until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[210] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover; her son Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.[211] Legacy Reputation See also: Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria Victoria smiling Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[66][212] and she denied doing so.[213] Her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[214] According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[215] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[216] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[217] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[218] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[219] In her later years, Victoria was stout, dowdy, and about five feet (1.5 metres) tall, but she projected a grand image.[220] She was unpopular during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[221] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[66][222] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[223] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[224] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[225] Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected a decade after her death. Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[226] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[227] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[228] Descendants and haemophilia Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[229] Of the grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood.[66] The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; Alfonso, Prince of Asturias; and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[230] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[231] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always had the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[232] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[233] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[234] Titles, styles, honours, and arms Titles and styles At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style was: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India".[235] Honours British honours Royal Family Order of King George IV, 1826[236] Founder of the Victoria Cross 5 February 1856[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India, 25 June 1861[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 10 February 1862[239] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India, 1 January 1878[240] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Indian Empire, 1 January 1878[241] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Red Cross, 27 April 1883[242] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order, 6 November 1886[243] Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1887[244] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order, 23 April 1896[245] Foreign honours Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 21 December 1833[246] Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III[247] Portugal: Dame of the Order of Queen Saint Isabel, 23 February 1836[248] Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa[247] Russia: Grand Cross of St. Catherine, 26 June 1837[249] France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 5 September 1843[250] Mexico/Mexican Empire: Grand Cross of the National Order of Guadalupe, 1854[251] Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of San Carlos, 1866[252] Prussia: Dame of the Order of Louise, 1st Division, 11 June 1857[253] Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I, 3 December 1872[254] Persia:[255] Order of the Sun, 1st Class in Diamonds, 20 June 1873 Order of the August Portrait, 20 June 1873 Siam: Grand Cross of the White Elephant, 1880[256] Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 1887[257] Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I, with Collar, July 1881[258] Serbia:[259][260] Grand Cross of the Cross of Takovo, 1882 Grand Cross of the White Eagle, 1883 Grand Cross of St. Sava, 1897 Hesse and by Rhine: Dame of the Golden Lion, 25 April 1885[261] Bulgaria: Order of the Bulgarian Red Cross, August 1887[262] Ethiopia: Grand Cross of the Seal of Solomon, 22 June 1897 – Diamond Jubilee gift[263] Montenegro: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I, 1897[264] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Silver Wedding Medal of Duke Alfred and duch*ess Marie, 23 January 1899[265] Arms As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne.[266] Royal coat of arms outside Scotland Royal coat of arms in Scotland Family Victoria's family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria Issue See also: Descendants of Queen Victoria and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and of King Christian IX Name Birth Death Spouse and children[235][267] Victoria, Princess Royal 1840 21 Nov 1901 5 August Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) Edward VII 1841 9 Nov 1910 6 May Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925); 3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) Princess Alice 1843 25 April 1878 14 Dec Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892); 2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1844 6 August 1900 31 July Married 1874, Grand duch*ess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920); 2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) Princess Helena 1846 25 May 1923 9 June Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917); 4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters Princess Louise 1848 18 March 1939 Dec.3 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914); no issue Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1850 1 May 1942 16 Jan Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917); 1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 1853 7 April 1884 28 March Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922); 1 son, 1 daughter Princess Beatrice 1857 14 April 1944 26 Oct Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain) Ancestry Ancestors of Queen Victoria[266] Family tree Red borders indicate British monarchs Bold borders indicate children of British monarchs Family of Queen Victoria, spanning the reigns of her grandfather, George III, to her grandson, George V Notes Listen to this article (1 hour and 2 minutes) Duration: 1 hour, 1 minute and 53 seconds.1:01:53Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 20 July 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) As monarch, Victoria was Supreme Governor of the Church of England. She was also aligned with the Church of Scotland. Her godparents were Tsar Alexander I of Russia (represented by her uncle Frederick, Duke of York), her uncle George, Prince Regent, her aunt Queen Charlotte of Württemberg (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta) and Victoria's maternal grandmother the Dowager duch*ess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and Edinburgh). Under section 2 of the Regency Act 1830, the Accession Council's proclamation declared Victoria as the King's successor "saving the rights of any issue of His late Majesty King William the Fourth which may be borne of his late Majesty's Consort". "No. 19509", The London Gazette, 20 June 1837, p. 1581 References Citations Hibbert, pp. 3–12; Strachey, pp. 1–17; Woodham-Smith, pp. 15–29 Hibbert, pp. 12–13; Longford, p. 23; Woodham-Smith, pp. 34–35 Longford, p. 24 Worsley, p. 41. Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81 Hibbert, p. 46; Longford, p. 54; St Aubyn, p. 50; Waller, p. 344; Woodham-Smith, p. 126 Hibbert, p. 19; Marshall, p. 25 Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. The rumours were false in the opinion of these biographers. 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(1907), The Letters of Queen Victoria: A Selection of Her Majesty's Correspondence Between the Years 1837 and 1861, London: John Murray Bolitho, Hector, ed. (1938), Letters of Queen Victoria from the Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia, London: Thornton Butterworth Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1926), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 2nd Series 1862–1885, London: John Murray Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1930), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 3rd Series 1886–1901, London: John Murray Connell, Brian (1962), Regina v. Palmerston: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and her Foreign and Prime Minister, 1837–1865, London: Evans Brothers Duff, David, ed. (1968), Victoria in the Highlands: The Personal Journal of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, London: Muller Dyson, Hope; Tennyson, Charles, eds. (1969), Dear and Honoured Lady: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan Esher, Viscount, ed. (1912), The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries Between the Years 1832 and 1840, London: John Murray Fulford, Roger, ed. (1964), Dearest Child: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal, 1858–1861, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1968), Dearest Mama: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–1864, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878–1885, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Your Dear Letter: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1863–1871, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1976), Darling Child: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess of Prussia, 1871–1878, London: Evans Brothers Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1984), Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-4107-7 Hough, Richard, ed. (1975), Advice to a Grand-daughter: Letters from Queen Victoria to Princess Victoria of Hesse, London: Heinemann, ISBN 0-434-34861-9 Jagow, Kurt, ed. (1938), Letters of the Prince Consort 1831–1861, London: John Murray Mortimer, Raymond, ed. (1961), Queen Victoria: Leaves from a Journal, New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy Ponsonby, Frederick, ed. (1930), Letters of the Empress Frederick, London: Macmillan Ramm, Agatha, ed. (1990), Beloved and Darling Child: Last Letters between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, 1886–1901, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-86299-880-6 Victoria, Queen (1868), Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1848 to 1861, London: Smith, Elder Victoria, Queen (1884), More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1862 to 1882, London: Smith, Elder Further reading Arnstein, Walter L. (2003), Queen Victoria, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-63806-4 Baird, Julia (2016), Victoria The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6988-0 Cadbury, Deborah (2017), Queen Victoria's Matchmaking: The Royal Marriages That Shaped Europe, Bloomsbury Carter, Sarah; Nugent, Maria Nugent, eds. (2016), Mistress of everything: Queen Victoria in Indigenous worlds, Manchester University Press Eyck, Frank (1959), The Prince Consort: a political biography, Chatto Gardiner, Juliet (1997), Queen Victoria, London: Collins and Brown, ISBN 978-1-85585-469-7 Homans, Margaret; Munich, Adrienne, eds. (1997), Remaking Queen Victoria, Cambridge University Press Homans, Margaret (1997), Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 Hough, Richard (1996), Victoria and Albert, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-30385-3 James, Robert Rhodes (1983), Albert, Prince Consort: A Biography, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 9780394407630 Kingsley Kent, Susan (2015), Queen Victoria: Gender and Empire Lyden, Anne M. (2014), A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, ISBN 978-1-60606-155-8 Ridley, Jane (2015), Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress, Penguin Taylor, Miles (2020), "The Bicentenary of Queen Victoria", Journal of British Studies, 59: 121–135, doi:10.1017/jbr.2019.245, S2CID 213433777 Weintraub, Stanley (1987), Victoria: Biography of a Queen, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-04-923084-2 Wilson, A. N. (2014), Victoria: A Life, London: Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-84887-956-0 External links Queen Victoria at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Queen Victoria at the official website of the British monarchy Queen Victoria at the official website of the Royal Collection Trust Queen Victoria at BBC Teach Portraits of Queen Victoria at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Queen Victoria's Journals, online from the Royal Archive and Bodleian Library Works by Queen Victoria at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Queen Victoria at Internet Archive Works by Queen Victoria at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Newspaper clippings about Queen Victoria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW Queen Victoria House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901 Regnal titles Preceded by William IV Queen of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded by Edward VII Vacant Title last held by Bahadur Shah II as Mughal emperor Empress of India 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vte Queen Victoria Events Coronation HonoursHackpen White HorseWedding Wedding dressGolden Jubilee HonoursMedalPolice MedalClock Tower, WeymouthClock Tower, BrightonBustAdelaide Jubilee International ExhibitionDiamond Jubilee HonoursMedalJubilee DiamondJubilee TowerCherries jubileeRecessional (poem)Cunningham Clock TowerDevonshire House Ball Reign Bedchamber crisisPrime ministersEdward OxfordEmpress of IndiaJohn William BeanVictorian eraVictorian moralityVisits to ManchesterForeign visitsDeath and state funeral Mausoleum Family Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (husband)Victoria, German Empress (daughter)Edward VII (son)Alice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by Rhine (daughter)Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son)Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (daughter)Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll (daughter)Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son)Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son)Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg (daughter)Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father)Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother)Feodora, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (half-sister)Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother)DescendantsRoyal descendants Early life Kensington SystemJohn ConroyVictoire ConroyLouise LehzenLady Flora HastingsCharlotte PercyGeorge DavysLegitimacy Honours PlacesEmpire DayRoyal Family OrderVictoria DayVictoria Day (Scotland)Victoria CrossVictoria (plant) Depictions Film Sixty Years a Queen (1913)Victoria in Dover (1936)Victoria the Great (1937)Sixty Glorious Years (1938)Victoria in Dover (1954)Mrs Brown (1997)The Young Victoria (2009)Victoria & Abdul (2017)The Black Prince (2017)Dolittle (2020) Television Happy and Glorious (1952)Victoria Regina (1961)The Young Victoria (1963)Victoria & Albert (2001)Looking for Victoria (2003)Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011)Victoria (2016–2019) Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897)Victoria Regina (1934)I and Albert (1972) Statues and memorials List of statuesLondon MemorialStatueSquareLeedsSt HelensLancasterBristolWeymouthChesterReadingLiverpoolBirminghamBirkenheadDundeeBalmoral cairnsGuernseyIsle of ManValletta StatueGateWinnipegMontreal SquareVictoria, British ColumbiaTorontoReginaBangaloreHong KongKolkataVisakhapatnamPenangSydney BuildingSquareAdelaideBrisbaneMelbourneChristchurch Portraits The Coronation of Queen VictoriaThe Marriage of Queen Victoria Poetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892)"Recessional" (1897) Songs VictoriaChoral Songs Stamps British Penny Black VR officialPenny BlueTwo penny bluePenny RedEmbossed stampsHalfpenny Rose RedThree Halfpence RedPenny Venetian RedPenny LilacLilac and Green IssueJubilee Issue Colonial Chalon headCanada 12d blackCanada 2c Large QueenCeylon Dull RoseIndia Inverted Head 4 annasMalta Halfpenny YellowMauritius "Post Office" stamps Related Osborne HouseQueen Victoria's journalsJohn BrownAbdul KarimPets DashDiamond CrownVictorianaVictoria sponge ← William IVEdward VII → vte Victorian era ← Georgian eraEdwardian era → Politics and diplomacy British ArmyBritish empireBy location IrelandLondonScotlandPax BritanniaPrime ministers The Viscount MelbourneSir Robert PeelLord John RussellThe Earl of DerbyThe Earl of AberdeenThe Viscount PalmerstonBenjamin DisraeliWilliam Ewart GladstoneThe Marquess of SalisburyThe Earl of RoseberyQueen VictoriaUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Economy, society and knowledge DemographicsEconomy, industry, and tradeMathematics, science, technology and engineeringSociety and culture CosmeticsEroticaFashionHousesJewelleryMasculinityMoralityPaintingTheatre BurlesqueWomen Bibliography Category vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the GreatEdward the ElderÆlfweardÆthelstanEdmund IEadredEadwigEdgar the PeacefulEdward the MartyrÆthelred the UnreadySweynEdmund Ironsidecnu*tHarold HarefootHarthacnu*tEdward the ConfessorHarold GodwinsonEdgar ÆthelingWilliam IWilliam IIHenry IStephenMatildaHenry IIHenry the Young KingRichard IJohnLouisHenry IIIEdward IEdward IIEdward IIIRichard IIHenry IVHenry VHenry VIEdward IVEdward VRichard IIIHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VIJaneMary I and PhilipElizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpinDonald IConstantine IÁedGiricEochaidDonald IIConstantine IIMalcolm IIndulfDubCuilénAmlaíbKenneth IIConstantine IIIKenneth IIIMalcolm IIDuncan IMacbethLulachMalcolm IIIDonald IIIDuncan IIEdgarAlexander IDavid IMalcolm IVWilliam IAlexander IIAlexander IIIMargaretJohnRobert IDavid IIEdward BalliolRobert IIRobert IIIJames IJames IIJames IIIJames IVJames VMary IJames VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VICharles IThe Protectorate Oliver CromwellRichard CromwellCharles IIJames II and VIIWilliam III and II and Mary IIAnne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 AnneGeorge IGeorge IIGeorge IIIGeorge IVWilliam IVVictoriaEdward VIIGeorge VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of OrangePrincess AmeliaPrincess CarolineMary, Landgravine of Hesse-KasselLouise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Augusta, duch*ess of BrunswickPrincess ElizabethPrincess LouisaCaroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of WürttembergPrincess Augusta SophiaElizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-HomburgPrincess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and EdinburghPrincess SophiaPrincess AmeliaPrincess Sophia of GloucesterPrincess Caroline of Gloucester 5th generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldPrincess Elizabeth of ClarenceQueen VictoriaAugusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzPrincess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German EmpressAlice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by RhineHelena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-HolsteinPrincess Louise, duch*ess of ArgyllBeatrice, Princess Henry of BattenbergPrincess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-RammingenPrincess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and duch*ess of FifePrincess VictoriaMaud, Queen of NorwayMarie, Queen of RomaniaGrand duch*ess Victoria Feodorovna of RussiaPrincess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-LangenburgPrincess Beatrice, duch*ess of GallieraMargaret, Crown Princess of SwedenLady Patricia RamsayPrincess Alice, Countess of AthloneMarie Louise, Princess Maximilian of BadenAlexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPrincess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of HarewoodAlexandra, Princess Arthur of Connaught and duch*ess of FifeMaud Carnegie, Countess of SoutheskPrincess Sibylla, duch*ess of VästerbottenPrincess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and GothaFrederica, Queen of Greece 9th generation Queen Elizabeth IIPrincess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonPrincess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli MozziPrincess Eugenie, Mrs Jack BrooksbankLady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor 12th generation Princess Charlotte of WalesPrincess Lilibet of Sussex Princesses whose titles were removed and eligible people who do not use the title are shown in italics. vte Hanoverian princesses by birth Generations are numbered by descent from the first King of Hanover, George III. 1st generation Charlotte, Queen of WürttembergPrincess Augusta SophiaElizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-HomburgPrincess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and EdinburghPrincess SophiaPrincess Amelia 2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldPrincess Elizabeth of ClarenceQueen Victoria of the United KingdomAugusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzPrincess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-RammingenPrincess Marie 4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of BadenAlexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes 7th generation Princess Alexandra Authority control databases Edit this at Wikidata International FASTISNIVIAF National NorwayChileSpainFranceBnF dataCataloniaGermanyItalyIsraelFinlandBelgiumUnited StatesSwedenLatviaJapanCzech RepublicAustraliaGreeceKoreaCroatiaNetherlandsPolandVatican Academics CiNii Artists KulturNavMusicBrainz 2VictoriaRKD ArtistsTe Papa (New Zealand)ULAN People Deutsche BiographieTrove Other NARARISMSNAC 2IdRef vte Princesses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha by marriage 1st generation Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág et Szitnya*Princess Louise of Orléans 2nd generation Princess Alexandrine of BadenVictoria of the United KingdomMaria II of Portugal and the AlgarvesPrincess Clémentine of OrléansArchduch*ess Marie Henriette of Austria**Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen** 3rd generation Princess Alexandra of Denmark***Grand duch*ess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia***Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia***Princess Helen of Waldeck and Pyrmont***Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern-SigmaringenPrincess Maria Pia of SavoyPrincess Louise of BelgiumPrincess Leopoldina of BrazilPrincess Marie Louise of Bourbon-ParmaPrincess Eleonore Reuss of Köstritzduch*ess Elisabeth in Bavaria** 4th generation Princess Victoria Mary of Teck***Princess Alexandra, 2nd duch*ess of Fife***Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg***Princess Amélie of OrléansArchduch*ess Karoline Marie of AustriaPrincess Mathilde of BavariaPrincess Giovanna of SavoyPrincess Astrid of Sweden**Lilian, Princess of Réthy** 5th generation Countess Viktoria-Luise of Solms-BaruthPrincess Augusta Victoria of HohenzollernMargarita Gómez-Acebo y CejuelaFabiola de Mora y AragónPaola Ruffo di Calabria**Léa Wolman** 6th generation Miriam Ungría y LópezMaría del Rosario Nadal y Fuster de PuigdórfilaMathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz**Claire Coombs** 7th generation Kelly Rondestvedt^ *princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld by marriage until 1826**also a princess of Belgium by marriage***also a British princess by marriage^did not have a royal or noble title by birth Categories: Victorian eraQueen Victoria1819 births1901 deathsMonarchs of the United KingdomMonarchs of the Isle of ManMonarchs of AustraliaQueens regnant in the British Isles19th-century British monarchs20th-century British monarchsHouse of HanoverHanoverian princessesHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (United Kingdom)Empresses regnantIndian empressesBritish princesses19th-century diaristsBritish diaristsBritish royal memoiristsFounders of English schools and collegesPeople associated with the Royal National College for the BlindPeople from KensingtonBritish people of German descentFemale critics of feminismHeirs to the British throneKnights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila ViçosaDames of the Order of Saint IsabelGrand Cross of the Legion of HonourGrand Crosses of the Order of St. SavaRecipients of the Order of the Cross of TakovoBritish EmpireWomen diarists

  • Condition: In Good Contion for its age over 120 years old
  • Denomination: Threepence
  • Year of Issue: 1900
  • Era: Victoria (1837-1901)
  • Fineness: 0.925
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Country of Origin: Great Britain

PicClick Insights - SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London PicClick Esclusivo

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  • Popolarità - SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London

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  • SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London

    EUR 7,65 4 Offerte 4d 6h

  • Victoria 1895 - 1901 Veiled Head Silver Threepence Group (7) Date Run 1896 #70

    EUR 25,70 Compralo Subito 23d 23h

  • EUR 78,24 Compralo Subito 24d 0h

  • EUR 52,95 Compralo Subito 18d 20h

  • 1900 Great Britain Silver 3d Victoria Proof Like Maundy Threepence Stunning Coin

    EUR 64,72 Compralo Subito 6d 22h

  • Queen Victoria Three Pences 3D Solid Silver Vintage Old Antique 1860 1901 Retro

    EUR 12,75 Compralo Subito 18d 5h

  • 1890 Queen Victoria Jubilee Head .925 Silver Threepence Three Pence 3d coin

    EUR 2,34 0 Offerte 1d 8h

  • Old England Britain Queen Victoria Silver Threepence 3 Pence 1900 NLGO1

    EUR 11,76 Compralo Subito 13d 18h

  • Pre 1920 British Silver Coins 20 Victoria Threepence 925 Sterling Not Scrap

    EUR 76,48 Compralo Subito 27d 2h

  • 1881 Victoria Threepence 3 Pence Silver British

    EUR 71,77 Compralo Subito 20d 12h

  • 2 oz silver threepence 3d mixed maundy pence coins pre 1920

    EUR 94,13 Compralo Subito 29d 3h

  • Old England Britain Queen Victoria Silver Threepence 3 Pence 1900

    EUR 2,34 1 Offerta 3d 22h

  • Vintage Old England Britain Queen Victoria Silver Threepence 3 Pence 1900 Coin

    EUR 11,77 0 Offerte 4d 7h

  • 1889 Queen Victoria Silver 3 d Pence coin (Jubilee Head)

    EUR 5,87 0 Offerte 3d 19h

  • 1890 Queen Victoria Jubilee Head .925 Silver Threepence Three Pence coin. 1.35g

    EUR 3,52 0 Offerte 6d 3h

  • 1900 Queen Victoria Veiled Old Head .925 Silver Threepence Three Pence 3d Coin

    EUR 4,69 0 Offerte 2d 5h

  • 1858 Victoria Young Head Threepence Silver Coin | Very Fine Grade | a8394

    EUR 104,58 Compralo Subito 22d 0h

  • Four Queen Victoria Silver 3d THREE Pence— 1897 and 1900

    EUR 17,65 Compralo Subito 27d 4h

  • 1900 Queen Victoria Old Veiled Head Silver Threepence. Good Circulated Condition

    EUR 3,24 Compralo Subito 18d 7h

  • Silver 3d Three Pence Queen Victoria 1860s And 1880s GB 6 Coin

    EUR 94,13 Compralo Subito 29d 21h

  • 1800s And Early 1900 Queen Victoria Silver Threepence Coins 9 In Total

    EUR 70,60 Compralo Subito 30d 3h

  • 1890 Queen Victoria Jubilee Head .925 Silver Threepence Three Pence 3d coin

    EUR 7,05 Compralo Subito 14d 2h

  • 1840 to 1901 THREE PENCE coin 3d Victoria SILVER .925 - Choice of year / date

    EUR 15,24 Compralo Subito 19d 4h

  • Victoria Jubilee Head Silver 3d Three pence 1893 British Victorian Coin

    EUR 78,96 Compralo Subito 17d 18h

  • Old England Britain Queen Victoria Silver Threepence 3 Pence 1899 THP01

    EUR 11,76 Compralo Subito 19d 5h

  • 1900 Queen Victoria 1 Silver 3 Pence

    EUR 5,87 Compralo Subito 23d 1h

  • Old England Britain Queen Victoria Silver Threepence 3 Pence 1900 NSGO2

    EUR 11,76 Compralo Subito 13d 18h

  • Queen Victoria 0.925 Silver Maundy 3d (Three Pence) 1900 NGC MS62 (8456)

    EUR 105,89 Compralo Subito 4d 1h

  • 1900 Queen Victoria 1 Silver 3 Pence

    EUR 5,87 Compralo Subito 23d 2h

  • Victoria Silver 3d Three Pence 1840 GB British Victorian Coin

    EUR 313,00 Compralo Subito 20d 16h

SOLID SILVER Old Three pence Coin 1900 Proof Queen Victoria Sterling 3D London • EUR 12,36 (2024)
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